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The role statistical methods play in medicine in the interpretation of empirical data is well recognized by researchers. With modern computing facilities and software packages there is little need for familiarity with the computational details of statistical calculations. However, for the researcher to understand whether these calculations are valid and appropriate it is necessary that the user is aware of the rudiments of the statistical methodology. Also, it needs to be emphasized that no amount of advanced analysis can be a substitute for a properly planned and executed study. An attempt is made in this communication to discuss some of the theoretical issues that are important for the valid analysis and interpretation of precious date that are gathered. The article summarises some of the basic statistical concepts followed by illustrations from live data generated from various research projects from the department of Neurology of this Institute.