|Year : 2008 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 159-163
Clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with nonepileptic seizures
Sri Sankar Chinta1, Prahbhjot Malhi1, Pratibha Singhi1, Sudesh Prabhakar2
1 Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
|Date of Submission||21-Apr-2008|
|Date of Decision||26-May-2008|
|Date of Acceptance||05-Jul-2008|
Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh-160 012
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Objective: The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive profile of clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and to assess the short-term outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were consecutive cases of children with a diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures (N=17, mean age = 10.7 years, S.D. = 1.26) and two groups of control groups matched on age and sex: true seizure group and healthy controls. All the children were recruited from the out-patient services of the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Detailed history taking and clinical examination was done in the case of every child. A standard 18 channel EEG was done in all the children and a video EEG was done in 12 cases of children with nonepileptic seizures. The Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Life Events Scale for Indian Children (LESIC) were used to measure the children's emotional and behavioral functioning at home, and the number of life events and the stress associated with these events in the preceding year and the year before that. Short-term outcome was examined three to six months after the diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures was made. Results: Unresponsiveness without marked motor manifestations was the most common "ictal" characteristic of the nonepileptic seizures. Pelvic thrusting, upper and lower limb movements, head movements, and vocalization were observed in less than one-third of the patients. Increased psychosocial stress and significantly higher number of life events in the preceding year were found to characterize children with nonepileptic seizures, as compared to the two control groups. The nonepileptic seizures and true seizures groups had a higher proportion of children with psychopathology scores in the clinically significant maladjustment range, as compared to those in the healthy control group. A majority of the patients (82.4%) either recovered completely or had more than 50% reduction in the frequency of their symptoms, after three to six months of initiation of therapy. Conclusions: Psychosocial stress is common among children with nonepileptic seizures. Confirmatory diagnosis by video EEG, along with prompt psychosocial intervention, often results in a favorable outcome for most children with nonepileptic seizures.
Keywords: Clinical features, nonepileptic seizures, psychosocial stress, short-term outcome
|How to cite this article:|
Chinta SS, Malhi P, Singhi P, Prabhakar S. Clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with nonepileptic seizures. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2008;11:159-63
|How to cite this URL:|
Chinta SS, Malhi P, Singhi P, Prabhakar S. Clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with nonepileptic seizures. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2020 Apr 10];11:159-63. Available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2008/11/3/159/42935
| Introduction|| |
Conversion disorder is a loss or alternation in sensory or voluntary function, that cannot be fully explained by known patho-physiological mechanism.  One of the common presentations of conversion disorder are "pseudo seizures" also called "psychogenic", "nonepileptic" or "hysterical" seizures. Nonepileptic seizures are clinical events that resemble epileptic seizures but are not associated with abnormal cortical electrical discharges. , Nonepileptic seizures are postulated to be the result of an unconscious psychological conflict, which is converted into symbolic somatic symptoms that reduce anxiety and protect the conscious self from stressful emotions. The symptoms also provide considerable secondary gain to the child, as the sick role generates attention and sympathy. It also allows the child to minimize personal responsibility for any failure and helps maintain its self-esteem. ,
Nonepileptic seizures among children are relatively rare in the developed countries,  but several epidemiological and clinical studies have found nonepileptic seizures to be fairly common in the developing countries, including India. ,
Since the advent of enhanced diagnosis by video EEG monitoring, nonepileptic seizures have become the focus of clinical and research attention. , Most of the studies have focused on the clinical distinctions between epileptic and nonepileptic seizures; few have focused on the underlying psychological antecedent factors or outcome of pseudo seizures in children. Hence, the current literature provides limited information about the clinical and psychosocial characteristics of these children and their families.
The present study therefore seeks to -
- present a comprehensive clinical profile of children with nonepileptic seizures, who were rigorously diagnosed and who did not have concomitant true epilepsy;
- study the number of life events and the associated stress related to these events;
- study the psychopathology among children with nonepileptic seizures and contrast it with control groups;
- assess the short-term outcome among children with nonepileptic seizures.
| Materials and Methods|| |
All consecutive children in the age range of six to 14 years and with a diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures, presenting to the Department of Pediatrics' outpatient services of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India, were enrolled. The diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures was made on the basis of clinical history, direct observation, clinical examination, EEG, neuro imaging, and, in some cases, video EEG.
For inclusion, children had to meet the following criteria:
- compliance with the diagnostic criteria for nonepileptic seizures
- no other clinical evidence suggesting that the seizures were due to epilepsy or any other neurological disorder.
Children were excluded if they had any known neurological disorder, static or progressive, history of chronic systemic illness, or grade III or IV protein energy malnutrition. In all, 30 children were evaluated over a period of one year (January 2003 to December 2003). Out of these, 17 children met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study.
These children were matched on the basis of age and sex to two control groups: seizure control group and healthy controls. The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) diagnostic criteria were used for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The seizure control group was enrolled from the Neuro Cysticercosis Clinic and Neuro Developmental Clinic from the Department of Pediatrics of the same hospital. Children of the hospital employees working in the Department of Pediatrics were enrolled as healthy controls group after matching for age and sex.
All the children had a follow-up for a period of three to six months and the short-term outcome was noted after the end of three to six months.
Children with nonepileptic seizures were compared to two matched groups of children, healthy controls and true seizures group, on two parent reported measures: Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Life Events Scale for Indian Children (LESIC).
- Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule : Emotional and behavioral functioning at home was measured by the mother's rating on the Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS),  which is the Indian adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist  (CBCL), one of the most widely used instruments measuring emotional and behavioral problems in children. The CPMS consists of 75 problem items on which parents rate their child using a three point scale, with higher scores reflecting more problems. The CPMS has eight sub scales, including low intelligence and behavior problems, anxiety, depression, conduct problems, somatization, and special symptoms. The authors also recommend a cut off score of 10 and children scoring 10 and above are considered as exhibiting clinically significant level of maladjustment.
- Life Events Scale for Indian Children: The Life Events Scale for Indian Children  (LESIC) was administered to all the children, to study the number of life events that the child had experienced and the stress associated with these events. The LESIC is a bilingual (Hindi and English) scale which comprises 50 life events, hierarchically arranged in increasing order of stress. The parents are asked whether the events listed in the scale occurred in the preceding year or the one prior to the preceding year. The stress scores for the events that had occurred were added to yield a total stress score. The scale yields four scores: number of life events in the last one year and the preceding year and the total stress score in the last one year and the preceding year.
The clinical presentation of the pseudo seizure group was studied by calculating the percentages for the various symptoms present and comparing the results of our study to previous studies. Group comparisons were done using the chi square test.
| Results|| |
Among the 17 children diagnosed with nonepileptic seizures, 13 (76.5%) were girls and four (23.5%) were boys. The mean age of the pseudo seizure group was 10.7 years, with an age range of 7-13 years. The sample was predominantly female and the male : female ratio was 1 : 3.25.
Clinical characteristics of nonepileptic seizure group
Analysis of the clinical characteristics of the nonepileptic seizure group revealed that upper limb movements were observed in 12 children (70.6%), asymmetrical clonic in both hands in five children (29.4%), and unilateral clonic movement in three children (17.6%). Nearly half the children with nonepileptic seizures (47%) were reported to show lower limb movements; there was asymmetrical clonic in five children (29.4%), unilateral clonic in two (11.8%), and symmetrical clonic in one child. No limb movements were reported in nine children (52.9%). Vocalization at the beginning or in the middle of the seizures was observed in four children (23.5%). Pelvic thrusting was reported in nearly one-fourth of the children (23.5%). Nearly one-third (35.3%) of the children with pseudo seizures were reported to experience whole body rigidity; whole body flaccidity was reported in only two children (11.8%). None of the nonepileptic seizure children was reported to experience any automatism, drooling of saliva, frothing, tongue bite, or fecal or urinary incontinence during the seizure like episodes. Unresponsiveness was fairly common and a majority (70.6%) of the group was found to experience it. Except one, all the children who were unresponsive were reported to be unconscious. Four children were observed to experience a seizure on suggestion and suppression of seizure on command, in the clinic. Out of the 17 children with nonepileptic seizures, the diagnosis was confirmed by video EEG in the case of twelve.
Comparison of the groups on number of life events and stress scores
The mean scores on LESIC and CPMS for the three groups of children by sex are presented in [Table 1]. Comparison of the three groups on number of life events and associated stress scores for the preceding year and the year before indicated that the nonepileptic seizure group had significantly higher number of life events and stress scores in the preceding year as compared to the seizure group and healthy control group. However, there were no significant group differences in the mean number of life events and associated stress scores in the year before the preceding year. Some of the common stressors identified in the children with nonepileptic seizures included school examinations, beginning of a new school year, increase in the number of arguments between the parents, physical punishment by parents or school teacher, death of a family member, and failure in school.
In addition, there was a clear temporal relationship with the stressor and the seizure like episode in 11 (64.7%) children with nonepileptic seizures.
Emotional and behavioral functioning at home was measured by the CPMS. Results indicate that there were no significant differences among the three groups in the mean CPMS score. However, significantly higher proportion of the nonepileptic seizure group (64.7%, N=11) and seizure group (52.9%, N=9) as compared to the control group (23.5%, N=4) were found to have CPMS scores above the cut off score and hence functioning in the clinically significant maladjustment range.
All children with nonepileptic seizures had a follow-up for three to six months. The treatment and management of these generally followed the approach highlighted by previous studies. This involved (i) shifting the focus of the parents from an organic to a psychosocial explanation of the symptoms; (ii) encouraging the child and parents to resume normal activities; (iii) ignoring or discouraging sick role behavior; and (iv) using problem solving coping techniques to tackle the child's difficulties, and (v) family counseling for enhancing parental competence to tackle problems and resolving family crises.
Results indicated that six children (35.3%) were seizure free after three to six months, eight (47.1%) experienced more than 50% reduction in the frequency of the symptoms and three children (17.6%) were lost for follow-up. All children who showed improvement resumed normal activities, were attending school regularly and showed no instance of recurrence and there was no single instance of symptom substitution during the entire period of follow-up.
| Discussion|| |
The present study examined the clinical features, psychosocial stressors and emotional and behavioral functioning of children with nonepileptic seizures. In keeping with findings from other studies, the majority of the pseudo seizure patients were female subjects. ,, Unresponsiveness without marked motor manifestations was the most common ictal characteristic of the nonepileptic seizures. Pelvic thrusting, upper and lower limb movement, head movements, vocalizations were observed in less than one-third of the patients. None of the nonepileptic seizure group of patients was reported to have fecal or urinary incontinence, automatisms, frothing, tongue bite or trauma during the episode. These findings support previous studies with adult subjects. , For example, Gulick et al.  found that 41% of patients with psychogenic seizures had episodes in which ictal features were impaired responsiveness with either complex behavior simulating epileptic automatisms or no significant motor behavior.
Increased psychosocial stress and higher number of life events in the preceding year were found to characterize children with nonepileptic seizures as compared to seizure group and control group. In addition, a clear temporal relationship between stressor and symptoms was reported for majority of the patients with nonepileptic seizures. Interestingly, the relationship between stressors and onset of symptoms was rarely apparent during history taking and a detailed interview was required in almost all cases to uncover the major etiological antecedent events. Previous authors have also stressed the importance of psychological stress as an etiological factor in children with conversion reactions including psychogenic seizures. ,,, For example, Srinath et al .  reported significant stressors among 71% of children with conversion reactions, in a study from South India. Some of the stressors reported included punitive parenting, parental discord, sibling rivalry, academic difficulties and adjustment problems with peers. Wyllie et al.  found severe environmental stress, especially sexual abuse common among children and adolescents with nonepileptic seizures. In the present study, there was only one child in which the possibility of sexual abuse was considered, although it could not be confirmed.
A role model for the symptoms was reported in only one-third of the children with nonepileptic seizures. This may be due to the difficulty in eliciting the same as Taylor  has argued that the role model may not be current and may arise from the long forgotten past, real or imagined, and may also evolve during the course of the illness. Previous studies have also documented that a role model for the symptoms may not always be present. 
Children with nonepileptic seizures and true seizures were found to be at a higher risk for emotional and behavioral problems. The groups also had a higher proportion of children with psychopathology scores in the clinically significant maladjustment range as compared to healthy normal controls. Previous authors have also stressed that children with nonepileptic seizures and epilepsy have higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial difficulties ,,, Wyllie et al.,  for example, found that major mood disorders were present in nearly one-third of children and adolescents with pseudo seizures. In a study from India, Malhi and Singhi  reported significantly higher psychopathology scores in children with conversion disorder, as compared to healthy controls.
All children were managed by communicating to the families the diagnosis and an explanation of the role of stress and emotional factors in the cause of pseudo seizures, in an unambiguous manner. The aim of the treatment was to help families develop an understanding of the etiological factors triggering or maintaining the seizures. Direct management techniques such as a providing additional academic support to a child with academic problems, recommending change of school for a child with major adjustment problems at school, asking parents to reduce open marital conflict for a child who is facing considerable stress due to increase in parental conflict, were also used. Parents were also asked to reduce secondary gain, if any, and normalize the child's activities, if the child showed significant functional impairment.
A striking feature of the study was the rapidity with which the symptoms went away, once the diagnosis was made and parents counseled regarding the same. A majority of the patients with nonepileptic seizures recovered within three to six months. Symptoms resolution helped the families to accept the validity of the diagnosis. Previous studies too have documented favorable outcome in children with nonepileptic seizures. ,,,, Wyllie et al.  studied 18 patients with psychogenic seizures and documented that 78% were seizure free at an average follow-up time of 2.5 years after diagnosis. Irwin et al.  studied 35 children with nonepileptic seizures and reported that nearly two-thirds of these children were seizure free and an additional 23% had more than 50% reduction in the frequency of seizures, after a mean follow-up duration of four to six years.
The high rate of favorable outcome in children and adolescents contrast with a relatively more guarded outcome in adults. , Possibly, the good prognosis in children with nonepileptic seizures found in our study may be due to the external nature of the cause of seizures which once identified was amenable to prompt intervention. It also remains possible that children require simpler techniques to lower stress levels as contrasted to adults.
In conclusion, it may be said that the diagnostic challenges of nonepileptic seizures have diminished in the era of video-EEG monitoring; nevertheless, the challenges of management still persist. Recognizing that the seizures are psychogenic, along with identification of the antecedent psychosocial stressors and emotional and behavioral functioning, may shed light on the underlying mechanism of symptom evolution and short- and long-term outcome.
Nonepileptic seizures have a good prognosis provided the diagnosis is made early, stressors are identified and addressed, and psychosocial interventions are initiated.
| References|| |
|1.||American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th ed. (DSM IV), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994. |
|2.||Ozkara C, Dreiffus FE. Differential diagnosis in pseudoepileptic seizures. Epilepsia 1993;34:294-8. |
|3.||Leser RP. Psychogenic seizures. Neurology 1996;46:1499-507. |
|4.||Maisami M, Freeman JM. Conversion reaction in children as body language: A combined child psychiatry / neurology team approach to the management of functional neurologic disorders in children. Pediatrics 1987;80:46-52. [PUBMED] |
|5.||Organista PB, Miranda J. Psychosomatic symptoms in medical outpatients: An investigation of self-handicapping theory. Health Psychol 1991;10:427-31. [PUBMED] |
|6.||Tomasson K, Kent D, Geryell W. Somatization and conversion disorder: Comorbidity and demographics at presentation. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991;84:288-93. |
|7.||Manchanda M, Manchanda R. Neuroses in children: Epidemiologic aspects. Indian J Psychiatry 1978;20:161-4. |
|8.||Srinath S, Bharat S, Girimaji S, Seshadri S. Characteristics of a child inpatient population with hysteria in India. Am J Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1993;32:822-5. |
|9.||Leis AA, Ross MA, Summers AK. Psychogenic seizures: Ictal characteristics and diagnostic pitfalls. Neurology 1992;42:95-9. [PUBMED] |
|10.||Wyllie E, Glazer JP, Benbadis S, Kotagal P, Wolgamuth B. Psychiatric features of children and adolescents with pseudoseizures. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:244-8. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT]|
|11.||Malhotra S, Verma VK, Verma SK, Malhtora A. A childhood psychopathology measurement schedule: Development and standardization. Ind J Psychiatry 1988;30:325-32. |
|12.||Achenbach TM, Edelbrock CS. Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington: University of Vermont; 1983. |
|13.||Irwin K, Edwards M, Robinson R. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: Management and prognosis. Arch Dis Child 2000;82:474-8. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT]|
|14.||Silva W, Giagante B, Saizer R, D'Alessio L, Oddo S, Consalvo D, et al. Clinical features and prognosis of non epileptic seizures in a developing country. Epilepsia 2001;42:398-401. |
|15.||Gulick TA, Spinks IP, King DW. Pseudoseizures: Ictal phenomena. Neurology 1982;32:24-30. [PUBMED] |
|16.||Gates JR, Ramani V, Whalen S, Loewenson R. Ictal characteristics of pseudo seizures. 1983;42:1183-7. |
|17.||Alper K, Devinsky O, Perrine K, Vazquez B, Luciano D. Non-epileptic seizures and childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neurology 1993;43:1950-3. [PUBMED] |
|18.||Malhi P, Singhi P. Clinical characteristics and outcome of children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Indian Pediatr 2002;39:747-52. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT]|
|19.||Taylor DC. Hysteria, play acting and courage. Br J Psychiatry 1986;149:37-41. [PUBMED] |
|20.||Grattan-Smith P, Fairley M, Procopis P. Clinical features of conversion disorder. Arch Dis Child 1988;63:408-14. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT]|
|21.||Austin JK, Risinger MW, Beckett LA. Correlates of behavior problems in children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1992;33:1115-22. [PUBMED] |
|22.||Austin JK, Dunn DW, Huster GA. Childhood epilepsy and asthma: Changes in behavior problems related to gender and change in condition severity. Epilepsia 2000;41:615-23. [PUBMED] |
|23.||Malhi P, Singhi P. Family functioning as a mediating variable affecting psychological adaptation of children with conversion disorder. Studia Psychologica 2003;45:229-36. |
|24.||Leslie SA. Diagnosis and treatment of hysterical conversion reactions. Arch Dis Child 1988;63:506-11. [PUBMED] [FULLTEXT]|
|25.||Bangesh IH, Wovley G, Kanat RS. Hysterical conversion reactions mimicking neurological disease. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:1203-6. |
|26.||Wyllie E, Friedman RN, Rothner D, Luders H, Dinner D, Morris H, et al. Psychogenic seizures in children and adolescents: Outcome after diagnosis by ictal video and electro encephalographic recording. Pediatrics 1990;85:480-4. |
|27.||Timble MR. Pseudoseizures. Neurol Clin 1986;4:531-48. |
|28.||Ettinger AB, Devinsky O, Weisbrot DM, Ramakrishna RK, Goyal A. A comprehensive profile of clinical, psychiatric, and psycho social characteristics of patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 1999;40:1292-8 [PUBMED] |
|This article has been cited by|
||Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in children — Psychological presentation, treatment, and short-term outcomes
| ||Tyson Sawchuk,Jeffrey Buchhalter |
| ||Epilepsy & Behavior. 2015; 52: 49 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures: Children Are Not Miniature Adults
| ||Barbara A. Dworetzky |
| ||Epilepsy Currents. 2015; 15(4): 174 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Outcome of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in children: A 2-year follow-up study
| ||Ashok Yadav,Rajkumar Agarwal,Jun Park |
| ||Epilepsy & Behavior. 2015; 53: 168 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Co-morbidities and outcome of childhood psychogenic non-epileptic seizures––An observational study
| ||Vikram Singh Rawat,Vikas Dhiman,Sanjib Sinha,Kommu John Vijay Sagar,Harish Thippeswamy,Santosh Kumar Chaturvedi,Shoba Srinath,Parthasarthy Satishchandra |
| ||Seizure. 2014; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Ethical dilemmas in pediatric and adolescent psychogenic nonepileptic seizures
| ||Cristie M. Cole,Tatiana Falcone,Rochelle Caplan,Jane Timmons-Mitchell,Kristine Jares,Paul J. Ford |
| ||Epilepsy & Behavior. 2014; 37: 145 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in children: A review
| ||Colin Reilly,Leanne Menlove,Virginia Fenton,Krishna B. Das |
| ||Epilepsia. 2013; 54(10): 1715 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Prevalence of epileptic and nonepileptic events after pediatric traumatic brain injury
| ||Joyce H. Matsumoto,Rochelle Caplan,David L. McArthur,Marcy J. Forgey,Sue Yudovin,Christopher C. Giza |
| ||Epilepsy & Behavior. 2013; 27(1): 233 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A study of assessment tools
| ||Jay A. Salpekar,Sigita Plioplys,Prabha Siddarth,Brenda Bursch,Richard J. Shaw,Miya R. Asato,W. Curt LaFrance,Deborah M. Weisbrot,David W. Dunn,Joan K. Austin,Donald M. Olson,Rochelle Caplan |
| ||Epilepsy & Behavior. 2010; 17(1): 50 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A study of assessment tools
| ||Salpekar, J.A., Plioplys, S., Siddarth, P., Bursch, B., Shaw, R.J., Asato, M.R., LaFrance Jr., W.C., Caplan, R. |
| ||Epilepsy and Behavior. 2010; 17(1): 50-55 |