Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 293-296

Cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia syndrome with benign course


1 Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695 011, India
2 Department of Imaging Sciences & Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695 011, India

Correspondence Address:
Sanjeev V Thomas
Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.74202

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Background: The cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia syndrome (CHS) is an under recognized cause of headache. This study was designed to highlight the clinico-radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) picture of CHS and their long-term outcome from a tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: The CHS was diagnosed on the basis of the criteria proposed by Chung et al. Cases with CSF rhinorrhoea or other CSF leak or head trauma were excluded from the study. Results: The study included eight consecutive cases of CHS diagnosed over the past 7 years from 2001. The mean age at diagnosis was 40.7 years (range, 34-56 years) and male-to-female ratio was 1:3. All patients presented with orthostatic headache of subacute onset and normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of all patients showed hyperintensity of pachymeninges in T2W sequences, venous distension sign, and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement. The descent of the brainstem and subdural effusion were noted in two each (25%). CSF study (n = 5) showed low opening pressure in three (60%), and mild pleocytosis with elevated protein in two each (40%). The mean time to complete recovery with conservative treatment alone was 25.6 days. All radiological signs disappeared with clinical improvement in three patients where follow-up imaging was done. On mean follow-up period of 3.6 years, all were asymptomatic without any recurrence of CHS. Conclusion: CHS can resolve completely with conservative management and intervention with subdural blood patch or surgical repair would be required only if symptoms persist for more than 1 month.


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