Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
  Users Online: 665 Home | About the Journal | InstructionsCurrent Issue | Back IssuesLogin      Print this page Email this page  Small font size Default font size Increase font size


 
Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 494-497
 

Clot composition and treatment approach to acute ischemic stroke: The road so far


1 Department of Radiology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India
2 Department of Medicine, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Date of Submission28-Jan-2013
Date of Decision11-Feb-2013
Date of Acceptance11-Mar-2013
Date of Web Publication25-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Paramdeep Singh
Department of Radiology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.120433

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Recent histological studies of thrombi retrieved from patients with an acute ischemic stroke using the endovascular thrombectomy devices and correlation with early vessel computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics have given relevant insights into the pathophysiology of thrombotic lesions and may facilitate the development of improved reperfusion treatment approaches. We present a review of recent studies on the histopathologic analysis of thrombi, studies of MRI, and CT imaging correlation with thrombus histology, and detailed structural analysis of thromboemboli retrieved by thrombectomy devices during an acute ischemic stroke.


Keywords: Clot composition, histopathology, stroke, thrombus


How to cite this article:
Singh P, Kaur R, Kaur A. Clot composition and treatment approach to acute ischemic stroke: The road so far. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013;16:494-7

How to cite this URL:
Singh P, Kaur R, Kaur A. Clot composition and treatment approach to acute ischemic stroke: The road so far. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Oct 14];16:494-7. Available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2013/16/4/494/120433



   Introduction Top


First histopathological evaluation of cerebral thrombi was carried out by Torvik and Jorgensen [1] more than 50 years ago in post-mortem cases with one and half month old obstruction. Recently, mechanical thrombectomy devices have provided an opportunity to directly investigate fresh thrombi specimens by retrieving them from the target arteries in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. On the whole, it is not known whether the choice of therapies ought to take into consideration composition of thrombus. A crucial issue is whether the structure of a thrombus ascertains its appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) and whether the thrombus structure also determines its susceptibility to thrombolytic agents like Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). [2]

Examination of freshly retrieved thrombi from patients with an acute ischemic stroke could help to improve our knowledge of stroke pathophysiology, may forecast response to treatment and soon might be expected to play a role in shaping success of treatment approaches after patient selection. We did review of human and animal studies carried out on the histopathologic evaluation of thrombi, studies of MRI and CT imaging correlation with thrombus histology, and detailed structural analysis of thromboemboli by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).


   Thrombus Composition Using Light Microscopy Top


Marder et al. [3] did the systematic histological analysis of thromboemboli retrieved by Merci retriever from the middle cerebral artery and intracranial carotid artery of 25 patients with acute ischemic stroke within or beyond 8 h of symptom onset. Despite the presence of common components of the fibrin-platelets, nucleated cells (neutrophil/monocyte) and red blood cells (RBC's) in all cases, there was a large diversity of histological pattern as well as in quantitative proportion of different components. The authors accredited this to haphazard and disorganized forces of sheer and turbulence imposed on site of thrombus formation contradicting long established system of belief that a cardiac source with slow flow causes the formation of "red" (erythrocyte) clots, whereas high flow in arteries formed "white" (fibrin) clots. Since there was heterogeneity of clot composition, traditional definition of red versus white clots was not found to be truly applicable.

There was an association between thrombus size and location in intracranial circulation. There was no correlation of thrombus histology with presumed stroke etiology, site of occlusion and reperfusion status. Marder et al. also stated that the interval between symptom onset and procedure initiation did not impact the recanalization rates. Calcific deposits and cholesterol crystals were not seen in the retrieved specimens.

Inference of thrombus structure from early vessel signs on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might assist to categorize patients who are not expected to respond to intravenous thrombolysis and therefore, need more aggressive treatment approaches such as intra-arterial thrombolysis or mechanical endovascular therapy. Liebeskind et al. [4] correlated the occurrence of Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) and blooming artefact (BA) with clot morphology and clinical results in 50 patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy. Thrombi were comprehensively evaluated by histopathology regarding the fraction of red blood cells, white blood cells, and fibrin. Both HMCAS and BA were notably linked with the occurrence of red blood cell-dominant clots while lack of HMCAS and BA was suggestive for higher fibrin contents in the clots. On the other hand, the occurrence of HMCAS and BA or thrombus histopathology had no correlation with stroke severity or functional outcome. As with the study carried out by Marder et al., Liebeskind et al. too were unsuccessful to reveal an obvious association between thrombus composition and stroke etiology or mechanisms, i.e., cardioembolism or vascular atherosclerotic disease.

Animal model studies demonstrated a lesser effectiveness of tPA thrombolysis in thrombi with high fibrin content in contrast with erythrocyte-rich emboli. [5],[6] Some other studies in human patients with stroke showed that strokes caused by paradoxical erythrocyte-rich embolism from a thrombus in the deep venous system were more responsive to treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in contrast with strokes of other etiologies. [7]

Almekhlafi et al. demonstrated chronic histopathological characteristics in thrombi mechanically retrieved by Merci device from five acute ischemic stroke patients. Early endothelialization was observed over and within the thrombus, and calcifications were also noticed, besides the usual laminar fibrin, intervening red blood cells, and neutrophils. They concluded that endothelialization, which is a subacute sign of early organization, might make tPA less successful if present in larger amounts. There was no differentiation in thrombi retrieved from the anterior or the posterior circulation, signifying a similarity of thrombotic mechanism once clotting has started. [8]


   Ultrastructural Analysis of Thrombi Using Electron Microscopy Top


Nogueira et al. reported the SEM examination of thrombi retrieved from 18 ischemic stroke patients. All the thrombi samples were dissimilar in size, morphology, and fragmentation on macroscopic examination. Light microscopic analysis of the gross specimens showed that the red regions were situated where there was less flow or stasis or where the thrombus was alongside the vessel wall while white regions were likely exposed to high shear blood flow.

Two different structural organizational patterns were identified on SEM: (1) clots showing advanced maturity with all the thrombotic elements densely incorporated so that individual units were not clearly noticeable signifying a well matured and established location that had continuous exposure to shear flow; (2) clots showing dissimilar fibrin strands and trapped red cells indicative of comparatively loose cross-linking attributive of an active region where the thrombus is still in the process of maturing and probability of development in regions of stasis and recirculation. Similar to earlier light microscopic studies, the organization of the thrombotic elements, i.e., fibrin, platelets, and red cells, varied within each thrombus as well as across the various thrombi. [9],[10]


   Recent Advances in Imaging Assessment of Clots Top


Recent advances in molecular imaging have led to the detection of thrombus-specific magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents that have an affinity to either fibrin [11] or activated platelets [12] and allow direct and selective high-signal visualization of the thrombus itself while the surrounding blood pool and soft-tissue is signal-suppressed. EP-2104R is a fibrin-targeted gadolinium-based MR contrast agent with usefulness in enhancing thrombi and has the additional benefit of allowing imaging of acute, subacute, and chronic thrombi. [13],[14],[15],[16]

Plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis is accepted as one of the relevant underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in patients with acute stroke. Studies have shown that MRI can differentiate thick, thin, and ruptured caps of carotid plaque with excellent sensitivity and specificity in vivo. [17],[18] Yuan et al. showed that patients with thin and ruptured fibrous caps are more prone to have had a recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke in contrast with plaques with thick caps identified by carotid plaque MRI. [19] Multidetector CT angiography can also identify high-risk morphological features (HRM) of plaques (remodeling, lipid pooling, and luminal irregularities) that are associated with an increased risk of ischemic cerebro-vascular events. [20],[21],[22],[23],[24]

18 Flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been shown to be helpful in assessing plaque inflammation. Figueroa et al. [25] demonstrated that inflammation as assessed by both FDG uptake and histology is increased in plaques containing HRM and increases with an increasing number of HRM. They concluded that inflammation accumulates relative to the burden of morphological abnormalities in plaques. Other prospective studies have shown that increased FDG uptake is associated with lipid-rich plaques assessed by MRI and with echo-lucency on ultrasound. [26],[27]

Many studies are underway involving human and animal subjects with fibrin-specific MRI contrast agents or PET-based as well as ultrasound-based tools and perhaps will shortly permit a further precise categorization of thrombus composition. [28],[29]


   Summary and Conclusions Top


Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy devices have provided the opportunity to directly investigate freshly retrieved thrombi which until recently were inaccessible. The recent clot composition studies make available vital insights concerning the histopathology, MR and CT imaging aspects, and detailed structural analysis of thromboemboli, which commonly cause acute ischemic strokes. The histopathologic assessment of fresh thrombi with light microscopy permits new understanding of the pathogenesis of and treatment for large-vessel ischemic stroke. There is a relationship between HMCAS on CT or BA on GRE and thrombi composed mostly of RBCs while lack of these imaging findings might mean a fibrin-dominant thrombus that is likely to be more refractory to thrombolytic drugs. Presence of chronic histopathologic features in clots such as endothelization and calcification might render tPA less effective due to decreased penetration. Similar to light microscopic studies, scanning electron microscopic examination has demonstrated diverse ultrastructural patterns being present within and among thrombi causing acute ischemic stroke. The selective imaging of thrombi with fibrin specific MRI contrast agents and PET-based tools may permit further precise identification of their composition. Though, the above discussed studies are very promising and show stimulating results, still more research is required to show the way in the selection of the most suitable treatment on the basis of clot composition.

 
   References Top

1.Torvik A, Joergensen L. Thrombotic and embolic occlusions of the carotid arteries in an autopsy material. i. prevalence, location and associated diseases. J Neurol Sci 1964;41:24-39.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Minnerup J, Kleinschnitz C. Visualization of clot composition in ischemic stroke: Do we get what we see? Stroke 2011;42:1193-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Marder VJ, Chute DJ, Starkman S, Abolian AM, Kidwell C, Liebeskind D, et al. Analysis of thrombi retrieved from cerebral arteries of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2006;37:2086-93.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Liebeskind DS, Sanossian N, Yong WH, Starkman S, Tsang MP, Moya AL, et al. CT and MRI early vessel signs reflect clot composition in acute stroke. Stroke 2011;42:1237-43.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Jang IK, Gold HK, Ziskind AA, Fallon JT, Holt RE, Leinbach RC, et al. Differential sensitivity of erythrocyte-rich and platelet-rich arterial thrombi to lysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator. A possible explanation for resistance to coronary thrombolysis. Circulation 1989;79:920-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Kirchhof K, Sikinger M, Welzel T, Zoubaa S, Sartor K. Does the result of thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in rabbits depend on the erythrocyte- and fibrin-content of a thrombus?. Rofo 2004;176:98-105.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Kimura K, Iguchi Y, Shibazaki K, Terasawa Y, Aoki J, Matsumoto N. The presence of a right-to-left shunt is associated with dramatic improvement after thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009;40:303-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Almekhlafi MA, Hu WY, Hill MD, Auer RN. Calcification and endothelialization of thrombi in acute stroke. Ann Neurol 2008;64:344-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Nogueira RG, Sukavaneshvar S, Rabinov JD, Dabus G, Yoo AJ, Buonanno FS, et al. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of thromboembolic material retrieved from cerebral and cervical arteries of patients with acute ischemic stroke: Abstracts from the 2008 international stroke conference. Stroke 2008;39:562.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Mehta BP, Nogueira RG. Should clot composition affect choice of endovascular therapy? Neurology 2012;79:S63-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Flacke S, Fischer S, Scott MJ, Fuhrhop RJ, Allen JS, McLean M, et al. Novel MRI contrast agent for molecular imaging of fibrin: Implications for detecting vulnerable plaques. Circulation 2001;104:1280-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.von zur Muhlen C, von Elverfeldt D, Moeller JA, Choudhury RP, Paul D, Hagemeyer CE, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent targeted toward activated platelets allows in vivo detection of thrombosis and monitoring of thrombolysis. Circulation 2008;118:258-67.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Overoye-Chan K, Koerner S, Looby RJ, Kolodziej AF, Zech SG, Deng Q, et al. EP-2104R: A fibrin-specific gadolinium-Based MRI contrast agent for detection of thrombus. J Am Chem Soc 2008;130:6025-39.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Botnar RM, Perez AS, Witte S, Wiethoff AJ, Laredo J, Hamilton J, et al. In vivo molecular imaging of acute and subacute thrombosis using a fibrin-binding magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. Circulation 2004;109:2023-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Spuentrup E, Fausten B, Kinzel S, Wiethoff AJ, Botnar RM, Graham PB, et al. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atrial clots in a swine model. Circulation 2005;112:396-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Sirol M, Fuster V, Badimon JJ, Fallon JT, Moreno PR, Toussaint JF, et al. Chronic thrombus detection with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and a fibrin-targeted contrast agent. Circulation 2005;112:1594-600.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Mitsumori LM, Hatsukami TS, Ferguson MS, Kerwin WS, Cai J, Yuan C. In vivo accuracy of multisequence MR imaging for identifying unstable fibrous caps in advanced human carotid plaques. J Magn Reson Imaging 2003;17:410-20.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Hatsukami TS, Ross R, Polissar NL, Yuan C. Visualization of fibrous cap thickness and rupture in human atherosclerotic carotid plaque in vivo with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 2000;102:959-64.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Yuan C, Zhang SX, Polissar NL, Echelard D, Ortiz G, Davis JW, et al. Identification of fibrous cap rupture with magnetic resonance imaging is highly associated with recent transient ischemic attack or stroke. Circulation 2002;105:181-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Saba L, Caddeo G, Sanfilippo R, Montisci R, Mallarini G. CT and ultrasound in the study of ulcerated carotid plaque compared with surgical results: Potentialities and advantages of multidetector row CT angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007;28:1061-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Hardie AD, Kramer CM, Raghavan P, Baskurt E, Nandalur KR. The impact of expansive arterial remodeling on clinical presentation in carotid artery disease: A multidetector CT angiography study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007;28:1067-70.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Rothwell PM, Gibson R, Warlow CP. Interrelation between plaque surface morphology and degree of stenosis on carotid angiograms and the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. On behalf of the European Carotid Surgery Trialists' Collaborative Group. Stroke 2000;31:615-21.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Eliasziw M, Streifler JY, Fox AJ, Hachinski VC, Ferguson GG, Barnett HJ. Significance of plaque ulceration in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. Stroke 1994;25:304-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Bassiouny HS, Sakaguchi Y, Mikucki SA, McKinsey JF, Piano G, Gewertz BL, et al. Juxtalumenal location of plaque necrosis and neoformation in symptomatic carotid stenosis. J Vasc Surg 1997;26:585-94.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Figueroa AL, Subramanian SS, Cury RC, Truong QA, Gardecki JA, Tearney GJ, et al. Distribution of inflammation within carotid atherosclerotic plaques with high-risk morphological features: A comparison between positron emission tomography activity, plaque morphology, and histopathology. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2012;5:69-77.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Graebe M, Pedersen SF, Højgaard L, Kjaer A, Sillesen H. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;3:289-95.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Silvera SS, Aidi HE, Rudd JH, Mani V, Yang L, Farkouh M, et al. Multimodality imaging of atherosclerotic plaque activity and composition using FDG-PET/CT and MRI in carotid and femoral arteries. Atherosclerosis 2009;207:139-43.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Spuentrup E, Botnar RM, Wiethoff AJ, Ibrahim T, Kelle S, Katoh M, et al. MR imaging of thrombi using EP-2104R, a fibrin-specific contrast agent: Initial results in patients. Eur Radiol 2008;18:1995-2005.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Uppal R, Catana C, Ay I, Benner T, Sorensen AG, Caravan P. Bimodal thrombus imaging: Simultaneous PET/MR imaging with a fibrin-targeted dual PET/MR probe: Feasibility study in rat model. Radiology 2011;258:812-20.  Back to cited text no. 29
    



This article has been cited by
1 l-NAME combats excitotoxicity and recuperates neurological deficits in MCAO/R rats
B. Pramila,P. Kalaivani,A. Anita,C. Saravana Babu
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2015; 135: 246
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Paediatric stroke: pressing issues and promising directions
Adam Kirton,Gabrielle deVeber
The Lancet Neurology. 2015; 14(1): 92
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (508 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Thrombus Composi...
    Ultrastructural ...
    Recent Advances ...
    Summary and Conc...
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2363    
    Printed45    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded128    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal