Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 374-382

Neuropsychological deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: A comprehensive review


1 Department of Emergency, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai 264000, Shandong Province, China
2 Operating RoomYantaishan Hospital, Yantai 264000, Shandong Province, China
3 Department of Clinical Psychology, Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
4 Department of Physiology, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College, Mathikere, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Formerly Willingdon Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Priyanka Rastogi
Department of Clinical Psychology, Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.144003

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Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizures with temporal lobe origin of electrical abnormality. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures affect all aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory, language, praxis, executive functions, and social judgment, among several others. In this article, we will review these cognitive impairments along with their neuropathological correlates in a comprehensive manner. We will see that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in TLE. Much of the effort has been laid on memory due to the notion that temporal lobe brain structures involved in TLE play a central role in consolidating information into memory. It seems that damage to the mesial structure of the temporal lobe, particularly the amygdale and hippocampus, has the main role in these memory difficulties and the neurobiological plausibility of the role of the temporal lobe in different aspects of memory. Here, we will cover the sub-domains of working memory and episodic memory deficits. This is we will further proceed to evaluate the evidences of executive function deficits in TLE and will see that set-shifting among other EFs is specifically affected in TLE as is social cognition. Finally, critical components of language related deficits are also found in the form of word-finding difficulties. To conclude, TLE affects several of cognitive function domains, but the etiopathogenesis of all these dysfunctions remain elusive. Further well-designed studies are needed for a better understanding of these disorders.


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