Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 32-36

Refractory status epilepticus


Department of Neurology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA

Correspondence Address:
Sanjay P Singh
Department of Neurology, 01 North 30th Street, Suite 5300, Omaha, NE-68131
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.128647

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Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED), i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits.


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