Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 69-79

Surgery for childhood epilepsy


1 Department of Neurology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Secunderabad, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Secunderabad, India
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Vijaya Diagnostic Centre, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sita Jayalakshmi
Department of Neurology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences,1-8-31/1, Minister Road, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.128665

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Approximately 60% of all patients with epilepsy suffer from focal epilepsy syndromes. In about 15% of these patients, the seizures are not adequately controlled with antiepileptic drugs; such patients are potential candidates for surgical treatment and the major proportion is in the pediatric group (18 years old or less). Epilepsy surgery in children who have been carefully chosen can result in either seizure freedom or a marked (>90%) reduction in seizures in approximately two-thirds of children with intractable seizures. Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, neurosurgery, and neuroanaesthesia have improved the outcomes of surgery for children with intractable epilepsy. Early surgery improves the quality of life and cognitive and developmental outcome and allows the child to lead a normal life. Surgically remediable epilepsies should be identified early and include temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, lesional temporal and extratemporal epilepsy, hemispherical epilepsy, and gelastic epilepsy with hypothalamic hamartoma. These syndromes have both acquired and congenital etiologies and can be treated by resective or disconnective surgery. Palliative procedures are performed in children with diffuse and multifocal epilepsies who are not candidates for resective surgery. The palliative procedures include corpus callosotomy and vagal nerve stimulation while deep brain stimulation in epilepsy is still under evaluation. For children with "surgically remediable epilepsy," surgery should be offered as a procedure of choice rather than as a treatment of last resort.


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