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Table of Contents
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 120
 

Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, HIV, and tuberculous meningitis


1 Medical Center, Shantou, China
2 Visiting Professor, Hainan Medical University, China; Visiting Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Serbia; Adjunct Professor, Joseph Ayobabalola University, Nigeria; Senior Expert, Surin Rajabhat University, Thailand; Honorary Professor, Dr. Dnyandeo Yashwantrao Patil Medical University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication10-Feb-2015

Correspondence Address:
Sim Sai Tin
Medical Center, Shantou, China

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.144312

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How to cite this article:
Tin SS, Wiwanitkit V. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, HIV, and tuberculous meningitis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2015;18:120

How to cite this URL:
Tin SS, Wiwanitkit V. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, HIV, and tuberculous meningitis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Oct 23];18:120. Available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2015/18/1/120/144312


Sir,

Raj et al. reported on "cerebrospinal fluid cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, HIV and tuberculous meningitis. [1]" Raj et al. noted that "HIV infection did not affect a majority of the CSF cytokines and MMP levels in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) except for IL-1β level. [1]" In fact, many reports show that HIV infection results in alteration of CSFcytokine [2] and matrix metalloproteinases. [3] Juan et al. reported that "CSF INF-gamma levels (>6.4 IU/mL) are very valuable in TBM diagnosis. [4]" The question is why the observation by Raj et al. is different. First, the confounding medical disorders, including to the opportunistic infection, should be well considered. For example, the Cryptococcal meningitis can affect the CSF cytokine, [5],[6] and cytokine therapy is also an alternative treatment for the Cryptococcal meningitis. [7] A further study with control of confounding medical disorder and treatment in HIV-infected cases is suggested.

 
   References Top

1.
Rai D, Garg RK, Mahdi AA, Jain A, Verma R, Tripathi AK, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in human immunodeficiency seropositive and seronegative patients of tuberculous meningitis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2014;17:171-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Thea DM, Porat R, Nagimbi K, Baangi M, St Louis ME, Kaplan G, et al. Plasma cytokines, cytokine antagonists, and disease progression in African women infected with HIV-1. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:757-62.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Liuzzi GM, Mastroianni CM, Santacroce MP, Fanelli M, D′Agostino C, Vullo V, et al. Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated neurological diseases. J Neurovirol 2000;6:156-63.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Juan RS, Sánchez-Suárez C, Rebollo MJ, Folgueira D, Palenque E, Ortuño B, et al. Interferon gamma quantification in cerebrospinal fluid compared with PCR for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. J Neurol 2006;253:1323-30.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Naranbhai V, Chang CC, Durgiah R, Omarjee S, Lim A, Moosa MY, et al. Compartmentalization of innate immune responses in the central nervous system during cryptococcal meningitis/HIV coinfection. AIDS 2014;28:657-66.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chang CC, Omarjee S, Lim A, Spelman T, Gosnell BI, Carr WH, et al. Chemokine levels and chemokine receptor expression in the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Infect Dis 2013;208:1604-12.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Rebe K, Williams GN, Bicanic T, Williams A, et al. Adjunctive interferon-γ immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: A randomized controlled trial. AIDS 2012;26:1105-13.  Back to cited text no. 7
    




 

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