Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 96-98

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy

1 Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Child Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Mathew Alexander
Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.144299

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Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) in HIV-infected children is a scarcely reported entity with previous reports describing fulminant course. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in altering its course remains unknown. We describe a child with HIV infection, who developed measles at 5 months of age and later developed SSPE at 14 years of age, remaining stable at 7 month follow-up, while on HAART for WHO (World Health Organisation) stage IV disease. The dynamics of HIV-related immunosuppression has an impact on the clinical course of SSPE. Contrary to reported cases of fulminant progression, a classic presentation with slow progression can be expected in children on HAART. We reemphasize the recommendation of "early measles vaccination" to prevent measles infection and subsequent SSPE in these children with an increasingly good life expectancy in the era of HAART.

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