Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
  Users Online: 258 Home | About the Journal | InstructionsCurrent Issue | Back IssuesLogin      Print this page Email this page  Small font size Default font size Increase font size


 
Table of Contents
CASE REPORT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 335-337
 

"Nine" syndrome: A new neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome: Report of two cases


Department of Neurology, Mathikere Sampangappa Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission13-Jan-2015
Date of Decision24-Jan-2015
Date of Acceptance04-Feb-2015
Date of Web Publication6-Aug-2015

Correspondence Address:
Rohan R Mahale
Department of Neurology, MS Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore - 560 054, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.157180

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

"Eight-and-a-half" syndrome is a rare condition involving the ipsilateral abducens nucleus or paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF), the ipsilateral medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and the adjacent facial colliculus/facial nerve fascicle. The condition is often caused by a lesion (vascular or demyelinating) in the dorsal tegmentum of the caudal pons. There are new variants of this syndrome caused by extension of lesion to involve new adjacent structures in pontine tegmentum. We report two patients with different etiology presenting with clinical features suggestive of eight-and-a-half syndrome associated with hemiataxia representing "nine" syndrome (8– + – = 9) adding new dimension to "eight-and-a-half" syndrome.


Keywords: Demyelination, eight-and-a-half syndrome, hemorrhage, pons, medial longitudinal fasciculus, paramedian pontine reticular formation, tegmentum


How to cite this article:
Mahale RR, Mehta A, John AA, Javali M, Abbas MM, Rangasetty S. "Nine" syndrome: A new neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome: Report of two cases. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2015;18:335-7

How to cite this URL:
Mahale RR, Mehta A, John AA, Javali M, Abbas MM, Rangasetty S. "Nine" syndrome: A new neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome: Report of two cases. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2018 Aug 21];18:335-7. Available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2015/18/3/335/157180



   Introduction Top


Pontine tegmental lesions usually present with gaze palsies, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), nystagmus, and abducens palsy. [1] A combination of horizontal gaze palsy in one eye and INO in the other eye caused by a lesion in medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) or paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) was first described by Freeman et al., in 1943. [2] Subsequently, C Miller Fisher in 1967 coined the term one-and-a-half syndrome to describe this combination. [3] The combination of one-and-a-half syndrome and ipsilateral cranial nerve seventh palsy is known aseight-and-a-half syndrome (1–+ 7 = 8–) and was described by Eggenbergerin 1998. [4] Here, we present two patients who presented with clinical features suggestive of eight-and-a-half syndrome along with hemiataxia. This combination represents probable "nine" syndrome.


   Case Reports Top


Case 1

A 62-year-old lady presented with giddiness, vomiting, gait unsteadiness of 10 days duration. Symptoms were sudden in onset and persistent. Giddiness was in the form of spinning sensation of the head, present continuously with no postural variation with vomiting. She used to sway on left side while walking. No history of fever, motor weakness, truncal imbalance, speech disturbance, or sensory disturbance in limbs. She was hypertensive on medication. On examination, she was alert, fully oriented. Pupils were equal and reactive to light. Oculomotor abnormalities were noted in the form of left horizontal gaze palsy (left eye abduction and right eye adduction) and limitation of adduction in left eye with abducting nystagmus of right eye (suggestive of left INO). Vertical eye movements and convergence were preserved. Horizontal and vertical vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) was preserved. Left lower motor neuron facial palsy was observed [Figure 1]. Rest of the cranial nerves were normal. Motor and sensory examination was normal. She had impaired left finger-nose and knee-heel coordination with swaying to left on tandem walking [Video 1]. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed hyper intensity in left half of tegmentum of the caudal pons, left dorsolateral rostral medulla, and inferior cerebellar peduncle on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) showing no restriction. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) brain was normal [Figure 2]. Serum vasculitis profile and antineuromyelitis optica (NMO) antibodies were negative. There was mildly raised protein (68 mg/dl) with no pleocytosis on lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. CSF oligoclonal band was negative. She received intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g for 5 days followed by tapering dose of oral Wysolone. She made slow but remarkable improvement in her symptoms over next 6 weeks. Repeat brain MRI showed reduction in the size of lesion in the pons.
Figure 1: (a) Weakness of left eye closure; (b) Right eye abduction nystagmus; (c) Left horizontal gaze palsy (impaired left eye abduction and right eye adduction); and (d) Right eye adduction paresis

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a and b) MRI brain FLAIR sequence axial view showing hyperintense lesion in caudal left paramedian pontine tegmentum and left rostral dorso-lateral medulla involving inferior cerebellar peduncle (red arrow) respectively; (c) MRA brain showing no abnormality; (d) FLAIR sequence axial view showing resolution of lesion in pontine tegmentum. MRI = Magnetic resonance imaging, FLAIR = Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, MRA = Magnetic resonance angiography

Click here to view


Case 2

A 54-year-old male presented with headache with decrease in the level of consciousness of 1-day duration. Headache was sudden in onset, holocranial associated with projectile vomiting. He lapsed into altered state of consciousness and was brought to hospital. No seizures, fever, or weakness of limbs. He was known hypertensive with poor drug compliance. On examination, his blood pressure (BP) was 220/120 mmHg, he was drowsy but arousable on verbal commands. Fundus examination revealed blurring of disc margins. There was no lateralizing deficit on the day of admission. There was improvement in his level of sensorium as he became conscious the next day with reduction in the BP. Oculomotor abnormalities were noted in the form of right horizontal gaze palsy (right eye abduction and left eye adduction) and limitation of adduction in right eye with abducting nystagmus of left eye (suggestive of right INO). Vertical eye movements and convergence were preserved. Horizontal and vertical VOR was preserved. Right lower motor neuron facial palsy was observed [Figure 3]. Rest of the cranial nerves were normal. Motor and sensory examination was normal. He had impaired left finger-nose and knee-heel coordination with swaying to left on standing [Video 2]. Computed tomography (CT) brain showed bleed in the right caudal pontine tegmentum with extension into right basis pontis and midbrain tegmentum [Figure 4]. He was treated with antihypertensives and antiedema measures. There was no further worsening at the time of discharge.
Figure 3: (a) Horizontal gaze to left shows restriction of right eye adduction and left eye abducting nystagmus; (b) Horizontal gaze to right shows restriction of right eye abduction and left eye adduction; (c and d) Vertical up and down movements are preserved; and (e) Right lower motor neuron facial palsy

Click here to view
Figure 4: Bleed in right caudal pontine tegmentum (red arrow); (a) Extension into right basis pontis; (b) And right midbrain tegmentum (c)

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


One-and-a-half syndrome represents ipsilateral conjugate horizontal gaze palsy (one) due to a lesion in the abducens nucleus or horizontal gaze center in the PPRF and an ipsilateral INO (half) due to a lesion in the MLF. [3] In brief, there is complete ipsilateral horizontal gaze palsy and partial contralateral horizontal gaze paresis (abduction preserved). Additional involvement of intraaxial fasciculus of the facial nerve results in palsy of cranial nerve VII and this along with one-and-a-half syndrome constitute the eight-and-a-half syndrome. [4] The anatomical localization is in the ipsilateral dorsal tegmentum of the caudal pons in one-and-a-half and eight-and-a-half syndrome. The prime etiologies for both syndromes are brain stem infarcts/hemorrhage, multiple sclerosis/brainstem demyelination, [5] brain stem tumors, and arteriovenous malformations. [6] There are few new variants of eight-and-a-half syndrome. An elderly patient with acute dorsal pontine infarction developed bilateral horizontal gaze palsy due to involvement of bilateral abducens nucleus/PPRF with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis due to anterior extension of the vascular lesion reaching facial nerve fascicle. [6] Lee et al., (2007) described a new variant in an elderlypatient with bilateral facial palsy and complete loss of vertical saccades and pursuit with bilateral horizontal gaze palsy. [7] A case of eight-and-a-half syndrome, combined with ipsilateral vertical gaze palsy was reported by Marquart et al., (2013) due to involvement of midbrain reticular formation apart from dorsal pontine tegmentum. [8] A possible "nine" syndrome was described by Rosini et al., (2013) which comprised of eight-and-a-half syndrome with hemiparesis and hemihypesthesia due to additional involvement of corticospinal tract and medial lemniscus by lacunar pontine infarction. [9]

In the present case series, the first patient had clinical features suggestive of left eight-and-a-half syndrome due to caudal pontine tegmental demyelinating lesion with additional involvement of inferior cerebellar peduncle in left rostral dorsolateral medulla responsible for left hemiataxia. Whereas, the second patient had clinical features suggestive of right eight-and-a-half syndrome due to bleed in right caudal pontine tegmentum with extension into midbrain tegmentum/red nucleus responsible for contralesional hemiataxia. These features further widen the spectrum of eight-and-a-half syndrome, configuring a possible "nine" syndrome.


   Conclusion Top


Apart from the classical eight-and-a-half syndrome described in the literature, there are few new variants of this syndrome that has been frequently reported of late. They represent the extension of lesion either anteriorly in the pontine tegmentum or inferiorly to rostral medulla or superiorly to midbrain as depicted in the present cases. Recognition of this syndrome helps in localization of the lesion to ipsilateral lower pontine tegmentum.

 
   References Top

1.
Kumral E, Bayulkem G, Evyapan D. Clinical spectrum of pontine infarction. Clinical-MRI correlations. J Neurol 2002;249:1659-70.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Freeman W, Ammerman HH, Stanley H. Syndrome of the pontine tegmentum: Foville′s syndrome: Report of three cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1943;50:462-71.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Fisher CM. Some neuro-ophthalmological observations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1967;30:383-92.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Eggenberger ER. Eight-and-a-half syndrome: One-and-a-half syndrome plus cranial nerve VII palsy. Neuroophthal 1998;18:114-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Skaat A, Huna-Baron R. Eight-and-a-half syndrome: A rare pontine neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome. Arch Neurol 2012;69:934-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Felicio AC, Bichuetti DB, Marin LF, dos Santos WA, Godeiro-Junior C. Bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis caused by pontine tegmentum infarction. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2009;18:244-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Lee E, Kim JS, Kim JS, Song HS, Kim SM, Kwon SU, et al. A small dorsal pontine infarction presenting with total gaze palsy including vertical saccades and pursuit. J Clin Neurol 2007;3:208-11.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Marquart C, Strauss C, Alfieri A. Eight-and-a-half syndrome combined with an ipsilateral vertical gaze palsy: A pathophysiological explanation. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013;115:767-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Rosini F, Pretegiani E, Guideri F, Cerase A, Rufa A. Eight and a half syndrome with hemiparesis and hemihypesthesia: The nine syndrome? J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2013;22:637-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (1,206 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Reports
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1887    
    Printed47    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded99    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal