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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 533
 

Prevalence of epilepsy and its association with exposure to Toxocara canis: A community-based, case–control study from rural Northern India


1 Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India
2 Department of Neurology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India
4 Department of Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India
5 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India

Date of Submission17-Jan-2019
Date of Acceptance21-Jan-2019
Date of Web Publication25-Oct-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manish Modi
Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_32_19

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How to cite this article:
Modi M, Singh R, Goyal MK, Gairolla J, Singh G, Rishi V, Thakur J S, Sehgal R K, Garg VK, Khandelwal N, Kharbanda PS, Prabhakar S, Lal V. Prevalence of epilepsy and its association with exposure to Toxocara canis: A community-based, case–control study from rural Northern India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2019;22:533

How to cite this URL:
Modi M, Singh R, Goyal MK, Gairolla J, Singh G, Rishi V, Thakur J S, Sehgal R K, Garg VK, Khandelwal N, Kharbanda PS, Prabhakar S, Lal V. Prevalence of epilepsy and its association with exposure to Toxocara canis: A community-based, case–control study from rural Northern India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 21];22:533. Available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2019/22/4/533/257646




Sir,

We thank Vibha D for her interest in our article. While increasing the sample size will definitely increase power of the study, the sample size was estimated to be 240 individuals (120 cases and 120 controls) to detect an odds ratio of 2.0 with 80% power at a two-sided level of significance of 5%. Hence, the study was conducted with an appropriate sample size. The specificity of 92% is reasonably high, and thus, serological testing for Toxocara canis can be used to confirm infection with T. canis.[1] Moreover, we did Western blot in all the positive samples to further improve the sensitivity and specificity of the results. Furthermore, this study did not aim to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic calcified lesions in the brain. In the meta-analysis,[2] there was a positive association between T. canis and epilepsy. Our results were similar to a previously published study from India.[3] The discrepancy between results of the present study and some of the other studies can be due to different socioeconomic conditions and lifestyles of people living in different countries as well as to different methodologies adopted by different authors.[4],[5]

Financial support and sponsorship

The study was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Fillaux J, Magnaval JF. Laboratory diagnosis of human toxocariasis. Vet Parasitol 2013;193:327-36.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Luna J, Cicero CE, Rateau G, Quattrocchi G, Marin B, Bruno E, et al. Updated evidence of the association between toxocariasis and epilepsy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018;12:e0006665.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Singh G, Bawa J, Chinna D, Chaudhary A, Saggar K, Modi M, et al. Association between epilepsy and cysticercosis and toxocariasis: A population-based case-control study in a slum in India. Epilepsia 2012;53:2203-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nicoletti A, Sofia V, Mantella A, Vitale G, Contrafatto D, Sorbello V, et al. Epilepsy and toxocariasis: A case-control study in Italy. Epilepsia 2008;49:594-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nicoletti A, Bartoloni A, Reggio A, Bartalesi F, Roselli M, Sofia V, et al. Epilepsy, cysticercosis, and toxocariasis: A population-based case-control study in rural Bolivia. Neurology 2002; 58:1256-61.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

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