Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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REVIEW
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84-97

Clinical application of circulating microRNAs in Parkinson's disease: The challenges and opportunities as diagnostic biomarker


1 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ravi Yadav
Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_440_19

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Discovery of evolutionarily conserved, nonprotein-coding, endogenous microRNAs has induced a paradigm shift in the overall understanding of gene regulation. Now, microRNAs are considered and classified as master regulators of gene expression as they regulate a wide range of processes – gene regulation, splicing, translation and posttranscriptional modifications. Besides, dysregulated microRNAs have been related to many diseases, including Parkinson's and related disorders. Several studies proposed that differentially expressed microRNAs as a potential biomarker. So far, there is no accepted clinical diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease based on biochemical analysis of biological fluids. However, circulating microRNAs possess many vital features typical of reliable biomarkers and discriminates Parkinson's patients from healthy control with much higher sensitivity and specificity. Though they show tremendous promise as a putative biomarker, translating these research findings to clinical application is often met with many obstacles. Most of the candidate microRNAs reported as a diagnostic biomarker is not organ-specific, and their overlap is low between studies. Therefore this review aimed to highlight the challenges in the application of microRNA in guiding disease discrimination decisions and its future prospects as a diagnostic biomarker in Parkinson's Disease.


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