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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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AIAN REVIEW
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 449-457

Non-motor symptoms in cervical dystonia: A review


Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Ravi Yadav
Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_27_20

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Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned, associated with twisting of body parts, and may have tremulousness. Dystonia is usually initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most prevalent form of dystonia. CD is a condition characterized by cranial muscle overactivity leading to abnormal intermittent or continuous posturing of the head. Non-motor symptoms are comorbidity of dystonia, which significantly hampers the quality of life among these patients. The symptoms can be as a result of the dystonia itself. However, studies have highlighted the involvement of cortical-striatal-thalamocortical circuits in primary dystonia that could be the pathophysiological basis for the non-motor symptoms. The non-motor symptoms that are commonly associated with dystonia are anxiety, depression, restless leg syndrome, excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive disturbances, and poor sleep. This review attempts to summarize the literature on non-motor symptoms in patients with CD.


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