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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Gender Differences in Impulse Control Disorders and Related Behaviors in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and its Impact on Quality of Life


1 Department of Neurology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Intern, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department ofNeurology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Gunchan Paul,
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab - 141 001,India

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Background: Dopaminergic medications administered to remedy motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease are associated with an enhanced risk for impulse control disorders (ICD) and related compulsive behaviors (ICD-RB). Thus, the present study focuses on investigating the gender difference in the prevalence of ICD-RBs in Indian PD patients on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), its impact on quality of life and to identify ICDs relevant in Indian scenario apart from the criteria set in QUIP-RS. Method: This was a hospital-based observational cross-sectional study in which Parkinson's disease patients attending neurology clinic were included. Complete details of anti-parkinsonian therapy along with demographic and clinical variables were recorded on a predesigned Performa. Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (QUIP), which is a validated quick screening tool, was used to detect ICD-RBs. The relative frequency and comparative impact of ICD on health-related quality of life (QOL) was studied using validated PDQ-39 Questionnaire. Results: Out of 102 patients, at least one ICD or ICD-RB was present in 41.19% and ≥2 ICD-RBs were present in 15.59%. At least one ICD was present in 16.67%, any ICD-related compulsive behaviors was present in 34.31% patients. The most common was punding and compulsive medication use (12.75% each), followed by hobbyism (7.84%), compulsive eating (6.86%), pathological gambling (3.92%), and hypersexuality, walkabout, and compulsive shopping (2.94% each). ICDs not classified elsewhere such as trichotillomania were found 3 patients (2.94%). ICD-RBs showed a trend to be more frequent in women (44.82% women vs. 39.39% men). As compared with patients without ICD-RBs, those with ICD-RBs were found to have higher dose of LD and DA and higher Hoehn and Yahr stage. ICD-RBs have a negative impact on the quality of life of Parkinson's disease patients. Conclusion: ICDs and ICD-RBs have been included in the behavioral spectrum of nonmotor symptoms in PD. PD patients are at increased risk of developing ICD-RBs which interfere with important activities and have obligation in ordinary life, leading to legal and psychological consequences with a great impact on QOL.


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