Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
: 2007  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81--87

Distal sensory polyneuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients and nucleoside analogue antiretroviral agents

Jimmy Jose1, Kavitha Saravu2, Beena Jimmy1, BA Shastry1,  
1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 4th Floor Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India
2 Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India

Correspondence Address:
Jimmy Jose
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 4th Floor, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka


Distal sensory polyneuropathy, which occur commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients can occur as a consequence of the disease itself or the antiretroviral treatment the patient is receiving. Among the antiretroviral agents, nucleoside analogues are commonly associated with neuropathy and the main underlying mechanism is thought to be the mitochondrial toxicity exhibited by these agents. Clinical presentation of antiretroviral induced neuropathy is similar to that associated with the HIV infection and in many patients they may overlap. Treatment is primarily symptomatic and certain pathogenesis-based approaches have shown promising results.

How to cite this article:
Jose J, Saravu K, Jimmy B, Shastry B A. Distal sensory polyneuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients and nucleoside analogue antiretroviral agents.Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2007;10:81-87

How to cite this URL:
Jose J, Saravu K, Jimmy B, Shastry B A. Distal sensory polyneuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients and nucleoside analogue antiretroviral agents. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2007 [cited 2019 Jun 25 ];10:81-87
Available from:

Full Text


Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse experience in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is the most common neurological complication in these groups of patients.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] But usually these neuropathies are overlooked or incorrectly diagnosed in patients with HIV.[6] There are at least six patterns of HIV associated neuropathy [Table 1].[7] Different forms of peripheral neuropathy occurs with varying frequency at different stages of HIV disease.[8] The frequency and spectrum of these neuropathies are changing, as the various toxic and immunological factors are modified by new treatment strategies.[9] Early in the course of HIV infection, patients may develop accute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). In other patients, a progressive or relapsing -remitting inflammatory neuropathy resembling chronic IDP has been noted. Cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytic pleocytosis (10 to 50 cells/mm 3 ) is helpful in the diagnosis of HIV-associated IDP. Plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulin has been tried with variable success. Glucocorticoids should be reserved for severe cases of chronic IDP refractory to other measures.[7] Symptomatic HIV infected patients may develop mononeuritis multiplex which is characterized by asymmetric peripheral and cranial nerve lesions resulting in motor weakness and sensory loss. In advanced HIV infection, multiple nerves in two or more extremities or cranial nerves are affected. Treatment includes immunomodulation or anti-CMV therapy.[7],[10] Patients with acute immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) may also develop subacute polyradiculopathy mainly due to CMV. It commonly affects lumbosacral roots and cauda equina resulting in pain and asymmetric weakness of lower limbs, sacral paresthesia, areflexia, ascending sensory loss and urinary retention and usually responds to anti-CMV therapy such as gancyclovir or foscarnet.[11] Other causes for acute polyradiculopathy in one series were mycobacterium tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis and meningeal lymphomatosis.[12] Autonomic neuropathy may be caused by central or peripheral nervous system abnormalities and is common in all stages of HIV-infection. Treatment is supportive with correction of metabolic or toxic causes.[13] Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome presents as a Sjogren's-like disorder with CD8 T cell infiltration of multiple organs. Antiretroviral therapy and steroids may be effective treatments.[7] Additionally, recurrent zoster infections and multidermatomal involvement are common in HIV patients and acyclovir or famcyclovir are the drugs of choice.

But, the most common form of peripheral neuropathy in this patient population is distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP).[7],[14] There are two forms of DSP in HIV patients; one solely associated with the HIV disease itself and other one is antiretroviral induced toxic neuropathy (ATN).[15],[16],[17],[18],[19] The present review mainly focuses on DSP with antiretrovirals as the possible etiology.

Whereas symptomatic neuropathies occur in approximately 10% to 15% of HIV-1-infected patients overall, pathologic evidence of peripheral nerve involvement is present in virtually all end-stage AIDS patients.[13] Even though after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the incidence of HIV associated neurological disease including HIV associated dementia and CNS opportunistic infections have fallen,[4],[20] the rates of HIV associated DSP has increased with reported prevalence rates exceeding 50%.[21],[22] A study of 252 patients enrolled in a pre-HAART trial of HIV-infected individuals at high risk of complications, the estimated one year incidence rate of symptomatic DSP was 36% and for both asymptomatic and symptomatic neuropathy it was 52%.[23] There are quite a few additions to the existing data on the epidemiology of HIV associated neuropathy. In a recently published study by Schifitto et al[24] in the Northeast AIDS Dementia Consortium the one year incidence of symptomatic neuropathy in the evaluated cohort of patients was 21%. In a retrospective evaluation of risk factors associated with the development of DSP in the HAART era conducted by Lichtenstein and the HIV outpatient study investigators, the incidence of DSP was 13%.[15] In contrast, the study by a Spanish group in 108 patients found a low incidence (1.8%) of symptomatic neuropathy, even though subclinical or asymptomatic neuropathy was high (66%).[16]

ATN may be a synergistic consequence of HIV infection together with the neurotoxic effects of select antiretroviral drugs, because some HIV-uninfected animals, treated with neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs, do not develop an antiretroviral induced toxic neuropathy -like phenotype.[25] Among the antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside analogue antiretrovirals and nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the major contributors to peripheral neuropathy.[26] During the development of zalcitabine, didanosine and stavudine in the late 1980s and early 1990s, phase I/II dose finding studies unexpectedly revealed dose-dependent DSP as the major treatment-limiting adverse effect.[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33] NRTIs is an important class of agent in the treatment regimens for patients with HIV infection. The development of peripheral neuropathy with NRTIs is one of the factors which need to be considered when selecting appropriate combination regimens for HIV-infected individuals.[29] ATN in many instances could be a contributing for noncompliance with the therapy and abrupt withdrawal of the antiretroviral regimen. There are many outstanding questions regarding the epidemiology, mechanism, risk factors, and treatment of this complication of antiretroviral regimen. A review on this aspect will be useful for an improved understanding of this important and increasingly common complication.


There are several theories for the mechanism of NRTI-related peripheral neuropathy, with the weight of evidence pointing to mitochondrial toxicity due to its property of inhibiting human DNA polymerase.[34] In vitro studies indicate a graded inhibition of this critical enzyme, with zalcitabine showing the greatest degree of inhibition, followed by didanosine and stavudine. Zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine show minimal inhibition.[35],[36] Zalcitabine and didanosine have been shown to reduce mitochondrial DNA, leading to destruction of mitochondria and increase in intracellular lactate levels using the in vitro model of nerve cells.[37] Results of in vitro experiments on human lymphoblastoid cell lines show the relative potency of these compounds in reducing mitochondrial DNA to be zalcitabine> stavudine>didanosine.[34] The agents show almost a similar pattern for the risk of neuropathy in clinical practice as well.[29] One possible mechanism to explain the enhanced susceptibility for toxic neuropathy in some but not all individuals exposed to NRTIs could be genetic variations in DNA polymerase.[26] Keswani et al[38] has reported based on their in vitro studies that these agents can cause direct mitochondrial toxicity through inhibition of the mitochondrial trasmembrane potential difference. Direct histopathological evidence of mitochondrial alterations in human nerve specimens with ATN was demonstrated by Dalakas et al .[39] Using quantitative methods and sural nerve specimens from four HIV infected patients with zalcitabine associated neuropathy, an increased number of abnormal mitochondria in the axons and Schwann cells, as well as mitochondrial DNA depletion was demonstrated.

Mitochondrial dysfunction may be an independent cause of neurological disease, as seen in inherited disorders, but it is also possible that a reduction in mitochondrial DNA unmasks pre-existing sub-clinical nerve damage due to HIV. Peripheral neuropathy may be an early marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, which is now believed to contribute to the development of antiretroviral induced myopathy, lipodystrophy and lactic acidosis.[34] Not surprisingly many of the manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction reported in inherited and acquired disease have been described during NRTI therapy.[34],[40],[41]

Additional mechanism postulated to be involved in the development of NRTI related neuropathy is a low level of acetyl-L-carnitine.[42],[43] The level of acetyl -L-carnitine in patients who developed ATN were lower compared to those who did not in two studies.[42],[43] Acetyl carnitine has shown to have neuroprotective effects and may increase the rate of peripheral nerve regeneration after injury by promoting the release of nerve growth factor.[44]

 Agents Implicated

Agents implicated in the development of neuropathy are mainly zalcitabine, stavudine and didanosine, with first two showing a similar rate of peripheral neuropathy and didanosine at a lower rate.[5],[9],[34],[45],[46],[47] It is generally accepted that zidovudine, lamivudine and abacavir are not or minimally associated with peripheral neuropathy compared to the above-mentioned agents.[9],[34] Data from large studies indicate an overall incidence of peripheral neuropathy of 25% and 23% with zalcitabine and stavudine respectively.[29],[48] Didanosine is having a lesser incidence (14%) as observed in a large study.[49] Incidence of drug withdrawal due to neuropathy was 10%, 13% and 6% for zalcitabine, stavudine and didanosine, respectively.[29],[48],[50] A recently conducted prospective study in an international cohort also demonstrated that exposure to stavudine and didanosine is significantly associated with a heightened risk for symptomatic sensory neuropahty.[47] Combination therapy of neurotoxic NRTIs (double dideoxynucleoside regimens; didanosine and stavudine) have shown to have higher rates of neuropathy. Further, co-administration of hydroxyurea with didanosine and stavudine in HIV patients also increases the risk of neuropathy (this is more likely due to the increased cellular effect of these agents in the presence of hyroxyurea).[1]

Risk factors

Careful assessment of the patients prior to the introduction of one of the potentially neurotoxic nucleoside analogues should be conducted to exclude those who are at risk of developing peripheral neuropathy with these agents [Table 2]. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy is likely to be multifactorial in origin; although drugs may themselves cause peripheral neuropathy, they may also merely unmask a preexistent subclinical distal neuropathy.[2] In this way, drugs that are otherwise well-tolerated by the majority of the people may appear to be profoundly neurotoxic because of the reduced neurological reserve of the population in which they are used.[1]

Clinical presentation and other findings

The clinical presentation of peripheral neuropathy resulting from nucleoside analogue treatment is similar to HIV associated DSP (usually not easily distinguishable) and in many patients they may overlap.[52] The small diameter nociceptive sensory axons and their respective soma in the dorsal root ganglia are the principal cellular structures affected in both.[53] Both present as a length dependent sensory neuropathy (i.e., feet affected first) manifested by pain in the ankles or the feet in over 65% of individuals and paraesthesias in 40%. Neurological examination shows abnormal sensory thresholds in up to 85% of individuals and reduced or absent ankle reflexes in up to 96%. Motor findings are uncommon, with only a third of patients having distal weakness.[54] However, the drug-related neuropathies are more likely to be painful, have an abrupt onset and rapidly progress.[29],[36] The defining clinical features consistent with drug -associated peripheral neuropathy includes pain, numbness and paresthesia. Patients may report gradual worsening over days or weeks. Eventually, numbness becomes the prominent feature. The symptoms are bilateral, symmetrical and distal in nature and there should not be any other identifiable causes. Symptoms often predominate in the absence of objective signs of sensory loss. Lower extremities are more affected than the upper.[34]

Other factors which would be of benefit in establishing a causation to the suspected drug is relating the onset of neuropathy to the commencement of treatment.[29] Pain when therapy is stopped should resolve within 8-16 weeks, although the signs of neuropathy may remain much longer.[1] After stopping the culprit drug there may be a paradoxical worsening of neuropathic symptoms over a period of four to eight weeks (coasting).[36] Mitochondrial toxicity may account for many of the long-term features of NRTI-associated peripheral neuropathy, including the delayed onset (as mtDNA levels gradually decline) and initial worsening of the neuropathic symptoms after stopping the drug (since the restoration of mtDNA levels is gradual, abnormal signaling may occur during recovery).[34]

The electrophysiological changes are similar to those seen in HIV associated DSP, suggesting axonopathy affecting sensory and motor axons.[27],[34],[42],[52],[55],[56] Results of nerve biopsies from patients with NRTI associated neuropathy have revealed mitochondria with disrupted cristae.[42] In a study comparing the nerve biopsy characteristics in specimens of AIDS patients with zalcitabine-related neuropathy with those of HIV-related neuropathy never treated with zalcitabine and from patients with other axonal neuropathies, a varying degree of axonal dropout and axonal degeneration was noted in all the diseased nerves, regardless of cause.[57] No unique feature characteristic of each neuropathy (zalcitabine, HIV, others) was noted. But, the degree of axonal degeneration and formation of myelin ovoids, however, appeared prominent in the specimens of patients were zalcitabine-induced neuropathy was suspected. Nerve biopsy findings in a patient with suspected lamivudine-induced neuropathy showed severe loss of myelinated fibres, some regenerative clusters and thickening of the perineural cells [58]

 Treatment of Neuropathic Pain

The number of large randomized clinical studies, which have tried to evaluate the efficacy of various agents in the management of HIV neuropathy is minimal. Further, studies specifically on the management of antiretroviral-induced neurotoxicity are less; in most of the studies this group of patients was a subset for the studies on treatment of HIV related neuropathy. As with the treatment of painful sensory neuropathy in general, the management of this group of patients can be difficult.[59]

Pain is the main determinant of additional therapy.[34] Most approaches have focused on symptomatic treatments, rather than efforts to block the pathophysiological processes or to stimulate nerve fiber regeneration.[54] Nonsteroidal and opiate analgesics may be of immediate benefit. However, agents like amitryptilline (25-75 mg at night) may be beneficial for the more constant pain component even though the same was not confirmed in a large controlled trial.[60] Certain patients may require antidepressant dosage levels (100 to 150 mg/day) of amitryptilline for benefit, although there may be dose limiting toxicities such as sedation.[7]

Agents such as carbamazepine, sodium valproate, gabapentin and lamotrigine may be better to alleviate severe lancinating pain. Carbamazepine has the disadvantage of being a hepatic enzyme-inducer, thereby affecting the metabolism of some antiretroviral agents, including both protease inhibitors and non nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors.[34] Further, the use of carbamazepine may be limited by the development of leukopenia, particularly in patients with HIV, where leukopenia and anemia are often already present.[7]

Gabapentin has the advantage that it may not significantly interact with the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs. A starting dose of 300 mg at night can be gradually increased to 300 mg three times daily. A preliminary report from the experience of using gabapentin in painful HIV related neuropathy (disease related or antiretroviral induced) showed gabapentin effective in producing significant relief in pain as demonstrated by the improvement in the Visual Analogue Scale and interference of pain with sleep rating.[61] This study had the limitation of a small study population size and lack of a placebo controlled arm. A placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin by the German Neuro AIDS Working Group in 27 patients showed an effect on pain scores.[62]

Lamotrigine was found to be a effective treatment option for HIV associated neuropathy in patients receiving neurotoxic antiretroviral agents in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study conducted by Simpson et al .[63] Compared to placebo, patients treated with lamotrigine had significantly greater improvement as assessed by various scales including Visual Analogue Scale for Pain Intensity, the McGill Pain Assessment Scale and patient and clinician ratings of global impression of change in pain. Rash was observed as the most common adverse effect. In order to minimize the occurrence of allergic rash, lamotrigine should be initiated at a low dosage (e.g., 25 mg/day or every other day) and this increased over approximately six to eight weeks to 300 to 400 mg/day.[7]

Even though capsaicin has been found to be effective in relieving pain associated with other neuropathic pain syndromes, it was shown to be ineffective in relieving pain in HIV associated sensory neuropathy in a multicenter study conducted by Paice, et al .[64]

In an open label trial, a 5% topical lidocaine gel was effective in reducing pain in AIDS-associated DSP.[65] But a more recent trial demonstrated the same as an ineffective agent for treating HIV associated sensory neuropathy including no difference in effect between patients exposed to neurtoxic antiretrovirals and those who did not.[66]

Therapies, which focus on the actual pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the neuropathy have also been studied in certain small trials. Acetyl-L-carnitine has been tried in certain small-scale uncontrolled trials, with conflicting outcomes that need to be confirmed by larger randomized controlled studies.[67] While assessing the efficacy of oral acetyl L-carnitine (1500 mg twice daily) in HIV patients with established antiretroviral induced toxic neuropathy, Hart et al , reported an improvement in epidermal nerve fiber density as well as the symptoms of neuropathy in patients treated with this agent.[68] In another study of HIV infected patients with sensory neuropathy, acetyl L carnitine administration intramuscularly or intravenously at doses ranging from 0.5-1.0 g/day for three weeks resulted in improvement in majority of the patients.[69] Two recent studies performed using acetyl carnitine also showed positive results, even though they had the disadvantage of being open label studies.[70],[71]

In addition, several new agents, such neurophilins, which could stimulate nerve fiber repair and nerve growth factors is under trial.[35],[72] Recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) acts as a trophic factor in the developing and damaged peripheral nervous system.[73] In a phase II clinical trial in 270 patients with painful HIV neuropathy, subcutaneous rhNGF was superior to placebo in reducing pain after 18weeks of treatment.[74]

 Further Antiretroviral Therapy

The issue of stopping the neruotoxic agent, in practice is usually a difficult decision; especially if there is a good response to the antiretroviral therapy. Lowering the dose of an offending drug raises the possibilities of HIV viral resistance.[59] If a decision is made to discontinue the suspected nucleoside analogue, a careful assessment of the remaining treatment options needs to be made. Avoiding suboptimal antiviral cover needs to be taken in account. The suspected neruotoxic agent could be substituted with a nucleoside analogue, which is less associated with peripheral neurotoxic effects (e.g., zidovudine, lamivudine, abacavir).[9],[29] In patients who interrupt therapy, reintroduction may be attempted once symptoms have resolved and many patients may tolerate recommencement of the same NRTIs. But this should be done only with careful clinical monitoring for toxicity. Future options may have to be modified depending on the agents practically possible for the individual patient.[34]


NRTI induced neuropathy is becoming an important complication of HAART therapy. Early identification and management of this complication is critical. Further management of these patients is usually a clinician's challenge. Symptomatic management and considerations on withdrawing the neurotoxic agent (replacing with less neurotoxic agents) depending on severity of neuropathy and available alternatives for the patient, appears to be the suitable approach. Efficacy and safety of the various symptomatic agents are becoming more clear with the data from various small trials, even though more specific trials in larger patient groups is required. Considering the pathogenesis based treatment approaches, acetyl carnitine has shown promising results which need to be tested in larger patient population, while the benefit of other agents is being evaluated in the ongoing studies. A better understanding of prevailing mechanisms of neuropathy in these patients will also allow for more effective interventions.


1Cherry CL, McArthur JC, Hoy JF, Wesselingh SL. Nucleoside analogues and neuropathy in the era of HAART. J Clin Viro 2003;26:195-207.
2Hall CD, Snyder CR, Mesenheimer JA, Wilkins JW, Robertson WT, Whaley RA. Peripheral neuropathy in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: Incidence and relationship to other nervous system dysfunction. Arch Neurol 1991;48:1273-4.
3Snider WD, Simpson DM, Nielsen S, Gold GW, Metroka CE, Posner JB. Neurological complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Analysis of 50 patients. Ann Neurol 1983;14:403-18.
4Bacellar H, Munoz A, Miller EN, Cohen BA, Besley D, Selnes OA. Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-1 related neurologic diseases: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1985-1992. Neurology 1994;44:1892-900.
5Sacktor N. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol 2002;8:115-21.
6Simpson DM, Katzenstein DA, Hughes MD, Hammer SM, Williamson DL, Jiang Q, et al . Neuromuscular function in HIV infection: Analysis of a placebo-controlled combination antiretroviral trial. AIDS Clinical Group 175/801 Study Team. AIDS 1998;12:2425-32.
7Wulff EA, Wang AK, Simpson DM. HIV associated peripheral neuropathy - Epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Drugs 2000;59:1251-60.
8Tagliati M, Grinnel J, Goldbold J, Simpson DM. Peripheral nerve function in HIV infection: Clinical, electrophysiologic and laboratory findings. Arch Neurol 1999;56:84-9.
9Gottlieb M. Minimizing peripheral neuropathy in patients treated with HAART. Drug Ther Perspect 2000;15:11-3.
10Anders HJ, Goebel FD. Neurological manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J STD AIDS 1999;10:151-9.
11Anders HJ, Weiss N, Bogner JR, Goebel FD. Gancyclovir and foscarnet efficacy in AIDS-related CMV polyradiculopathy. J Infect 1998;36:29-33.
12Corral I, Quereda C, Casado JL, Cobo J, Navas E, Perez-Elias MJ. Acute polyradiculopathies in HIV infected patients. J. Neurol 1997;244:499-504.
13Verma A. Epidemiology and clinical features of HIV-associated neuropathies. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2001;6:8-13.
14Keswani SC, Pardo CA, Cherry CL, Hoke A, McArthur JC. HIV associated sensory neuropathies. AIDS 2002;16:2105-17.
15Lichtnestein KA, Armon C, Barn A, Moorman AC, Wood KC, Holmberg SD, et al . Modification of the incidence of drug-associated symmetrical peripheral neuropathy by host and disease factors in the HIV outpatient study cohort. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:148-57.
16Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar K, Rivas Gonzalez P, Ibarra-Luzar JI, Fernandez-Garcia, Govenechea-Herrero A, Fernados Bravo-Rueda A, et al . Clinical and subclinical neuropathy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus receiving antiretroviral therapy. Rev Neurol 2006;42:513-20.
17Pettersen JA, Jones G, Worthington C, Krentz H, Keppler OT, Hoke A, et al . Sensory neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: Protease inhibitor- mediated neurotoxicity. Ann Neurol 2006;59:816-24.
18Leger JM, Bouche P, Bolgert F, Chaunu MP, Rosenheim M, Cathala HP, et al . The spectrum of polynueropahthies in patients infected with HIV. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:1369-74.
19Simpson DM, Tagliati M. Nucleoside analogue-associated peripheral neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;9:153-61.
20Sacktor N, Lyles RH, Skolasky R, Kleeberger C, Selnes OA, Miller EN, et al . HIV associated neurologic disease incidence changes: Multicentre AIDS cohort study, 1990-1998. Neurology 2001;56:257-60.
21Morgello S, Estanislao L, Simpson D, Geracia A, DiRocco A, Geritis P, et al . HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Arch Neurol 2004;61:546-51.
22Watters MR, Poff PW, Shiramizu BT, Holck PS, Fast KM, Shikuna CM, et al . Symptomatic distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV after age 50. Neurology 2004;62:1378-83.
23Schifitto G, McDermott MP, McArthur JC, Marder K, Sacktor N, Epstein L, et al . Incidence and risk factors for HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy. Neurology 2002;58:1764-8.
24Schifitto G, McDermott MP, McArthur JC, Marder K, Sacktor N, Mc Clemon DR, et al . Markers of immune activation and viral load in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Neurology 2005;64:842-8.
25Anderson TD, Davidovich A, Arceo R, Brosnan C, Arezzo J, Schaumburg H. Peripheral neuropathy induced by 2',3'-dideoxycytidine. A rabbit model of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine neurotoxicity. Lab Invest 1992;66:63-74.
26Luciano CA, Pardo CA, McArthur JC. Recent developments in the HIV neuropathies. Curr Opin Neurol 2003;16:403-9.
27Blum AS, Dal Pan GJ, Feinberg J, Raines C, Mayjo BS, Cornblath DR, et al . Low-dose zalcitabine related toxic neuropathy: Frequency, natural history and risk factors. Neurology 1996;46:999-1003.
28Sadler M, Nelson M. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV. Int J STD AIDS 1997;8:16-21.
29Moyle GJ, Sadler M. Peripheral neuropathy with nucleoside antiretrovirals: Risk factors, incidence and management. Drug Saf 1998;19:481-94.
30Lambert JS, Seidlin M, Reichman RC, Plank CS, Laverty M, Morse GD, et al . 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. A phase I trial. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1333-40.
31Valentine FT, Seidlin M, Hochester H, Laverty M. Phase I study of 2',3'-dideowyinosine: Experience with 19 patients at New York medical center. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:S534-9.
32Browne MJ, Mayer KH, Chafee SB, Dudley MN, Posner MR, Steinberg SM, et al . 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine (d4T) in patients with AIDS or AIDS related complex: A phase I trial. J Infect Dis 1993;167:21-9.
33Skowron G. Biologic effects and safety of stavudine: Overview of phase I and phase II clinical trials. J Infect Dis 1995;171:S113-7.
34Moyle G. Clinical manifestations and management of antiretroviral nucleoside analog-related mitochondrial toxicity. Clin Ther 2000;22:911-36.
35Chen CH, Vazquez-Padua M, Cheng YC. Effect of anti-human immunodeficiency virus nucleoside analogs on mitochondrial DNA and its implication for delayed toxicity. Mol Pharmacol 1991;39:625-8.
36Martin JL, Brown CE, Matthews-Davis N, Reardon JE. Effects of antiviral nucleoside analogs on human DNA polymerases and mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994;38:2743-9.
37Keilbaugh SA, Prusoff WH, Simpson VM. The PC12 cell as a model for studies of mechanism of induction of peripheral neuropathy by anti-HIV-1 dideoxynucleoside analogs. Biochem Pharmacol 1991;42:R5-8.
38Keswani SC, Chander B, Hasan C, Griffin GW, McArthur JC, Hoke A. FK506 is neuroprotective in a model of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. Ann Neurol 2003;53:57-64.
39Dalakas MC, Semino-Mora C, Leon-Monzon M. Mitochondrial alterations with mitochondrial DNA depletion in the nerves of AIDS patients with peripheral neuropathy induced by 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC). Lab Invest 2001;81:1537-44.
40Kakuda TN. Pharmacology of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor-induced mitochondrial toxicity. Clin Ther 2000;22:685-708.
41Lee H, Hanes J, Johnson KA. Toxicity of nucleoside analogues used to treat AIDS and the selectivity of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Biochemistry 2003;42:14711-9.
42Lewis W, Dalakas MC. Mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral drugs. Nat Med 1995;1:417-22.
43Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, Trinchieri V, Tzantzoglou S, Santini G, et al . Acety-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185-90.
44Bremer J. The role of carnitine in intracellular metabolism. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1990;28:297-301.
45Schifitto G, McDermott MP, McArthur JC, Marder K, Sacktor N, McClernon DR, et al . Markers of immune activation and viral load in HIV associated neuropathy. Neurology 2005;64:842-8.
46Cherry CL, Lal L, Wesseltngh SL. Mitochondrial toxicity of nucleoside analogues: Mechanism, monitoring and management. Sex Health 2005;2:1-11.
47Cherry CL, Skolasky MA, Lal L, Creighton J, Hauer P, Raman SP, et al . Antiretroviral use and other risks for HIV-associated neuropathies in an international cohort. Neurology 2006;66:867-73.
48Gottlieb M, Peterson D, Adler M. Comparison of safety and efficacy of 2 doses of stavudine in a large simple trial in the US parallel track program (abstract no.1171). 35th ICAAC: San Fransico; 1995. p. 235.
49Kahn JO, Lagakos SW, Richman DD, Cross A, Pettinelli C, Liou SH, et al . A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1992;327:581-7.
50The Alpha trial: European/Australian randomized double-blind trial of two-doses of didanosine in zidovudine intolerant patients with symptomatic HIV disease. Alpha International Coordinating Committee. AIDS 1996;10:867-80.
51Moore RD, Wong WM, Keruly JC, McArthur JC. Incidence of neuropathy in HIV-infected patients on monotherapy versus those on combination therapy with didanosine, stavudine and hydroxyurea. AIDS 2000;14:273-8.
52Dalakas MC. Peripheral neuropathy and antiretroviral drugs. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2001;6:14-20.
53McGarthy BG, Hsieh ST, Stocks A, Hauer P, Macko C, Cornblath DR, et al . Cutaneous innervation in sensory neuropathies evaluation by skin biopsy. Neurology 1995;45:1848-55.
54McArthur JC. Report from the 8th CROI: sensory neuropathy in HIV/AIDS. Hopkins HIV Rep 2001;13:2.
55Berger AR, Arezzo JC, Schaumburg HH, Skowron G, Merigan T, Bozzette S, et al . 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) toxic neuropathy: A study of 52 patients. Neurology 1993;43:358-62.
56Dubinsky RM, Yarchoan R, Dalakas M, Broder S. Reversible axonal neuropathy from the treatment of AIDS and related disorders with 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC). Muscle Nerve 1989;12:856-60.
57Dalakas MC, Semino-Mora C, Leon-Monzon M. Mitochondrial alterations with mitochondrial DNA depletion in the nerves of AIDS patients with peripheral neuropathy induced by 2'3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddC). Lab Invest 2001;81:1537-44.
58Fodale V, Mazzeo A, Pratico C, Aquennoz M, Toscano N, Santamaria LB, et al . Fatal exacerbation of peripheral neuropathy during lamivudine therapy: Evidence for iatrogenic mitochondrial damage. Anaesthesia 2005;60:806-10.
59Manji H, Miller R. The neurology of HIV infection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75:129-31.
60Kieburtz K, Simpson D, Yiannoustsos C, Max MB, Hall CD, Ellis RJ, et al . A randomized trial of amitriptyline and mexiletene for painful neuropathy in HIV infection: The ACTG 242 Study Team. Neurology 1998;51:1682-8.
61La Spina I, Porazzi D, Maggiolo F, Bottura P, Suter F. Gabapentin in painful HIV related neuropathy: A report of 19 patients, preliminary observations. Eur J Neurol 2001;8:71-5.
62Hahn K, Arendt G, Braun JS, von Giesen HJ, Husstedt IW, Maschke M, et al . A placebo controlled trial of gabapentin for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies. J Neurol 2004;251:1260-6.
63Simpson DM, McArthur JC, Olney R, Clifford D, So Y, Ross D, et al . Lamotrigine for HIV-associated painful sensory neuropathies: A placebo controlled trial. Neurology 2003;60:1508-14.
64Paice JA, Ferrans CE, Lashley FR, Shott S, Vizgirda V, Pitrak D. Topical capsaicin in the management of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy. Pain Symp Manage 2000;19:45-52.
65Dorfman D, Dalton A, Khan A, Markarian Y, Scarano A, Cansino M, et al . Treatment of painful distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-infected patients with a topical agent: Results of an open-label trial of 5% lidocaine gel. AIDS 1999;13:1589-90.
66Estanislao L, Carter K, Mc Arthur J, Olney R, Simpson D; Lidoderm-HIV neuropathy group. A randomized controlled trial of 5% Lidocaine gel for HIV-associated distal symmetric polyneuropathy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;37:1584-6.
67Ilias Ioannis, Manoli I, Blackman MR, Gold PW, Alesci S. L-carnitine and acetyl L-carnitine in the treatment of complications associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therpay. Mitochondrion 2004;4:163-8.
68Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, Smith C, Johsnon M, Terenghi G. Acelty-L-carnitine: A pathogenesis based treatment for HIV associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS 2000;18:1549-60.
69Scarpini E, Sacilotto G, Baron P, Cusini M, Scarlato G. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV positive patients. J Peripher Nerv Syst 1997;2:250-2.
70Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long term effect of acetyl carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials 2005;6:344-50.
71Osio M, Muscia F, Zampini M, Nascimbene C, Mailland E, Cargnel A, et al . Acetyl carnitine in the treatment of painful toxic neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients: An open label study. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2006;11:72-6.
72Hoke A, Keswani SC. Neuroprotection in the PNS erythropoietin and immunophilin ligands. Ann NY Acad Sci 2005;1053:491-501.
73Dyck PJ, Peroutka S, Rask C, Burton E, Baker MK, Lehman K, et al . Intradermal recombinant human nerve growth factor induces pressure allodynia and lowered heat-pain threshold in humans. Neurology 1997;48:501-5.
74McArthur JC, Yiannoutsos C, Simpson DM, Adornato BT, Singer EJ, Hollander H, et al . A phase II trial of recombinant human nerve growth factor for sensory neuropathy associated with HIV. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Team 291. Neurology 2000;54:1080-8.