Figure 2: In HIV-encephalitis (HIV-E) (a) the white matter shows the characteristic moth-eaten appearance of the myelin. The multiple small foci of myelin loss are surrounded by normal-looking white matter. LFB/N. This pattern contrasts with the diffuse pallor of the centrum semiovale in HIV-leukoencephalopathy (HIV-lep) (b). The less common form of HIV-related poliodystrophy (c) shows brains diffusely reduced in size with wider sulci and enlarged ventricles. (b) and (c) are stained with Loyez method.