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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-19
 

The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview


Department of Neurology, VA/ USC 16111, Sepulveda, CA, USA

Date of Submission04-Nov-2007
Date of Decision05-Feb-2008
Date of Acceptance14-Feb-2008

Correspondence Address:
Shrikant Mishra
Department of Neurology, VA/ USC 16111, Plummer Street, Sepulveda, CA, 91343
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.40220

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   Abstract 

This paper discusses the effects of curcumin on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin (Turmeric), an ancient Indian herb used in curry powder, has been extensively studied in modern medicine and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, haemorrhoids, gastric ulcer, colon cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, liver diseases and arthritis. It has been used in various types of treatments for dementia and traumatic brain injury. Curcumin also has a potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD. A growing body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress, free radicals, beta amyloid, cerebral deregulation caused by bio-metal toxicity and abnormal inflammatory reactions contribute to the key event in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Due to various effects of curcumin, such as decreased Beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and decreased microglia formation, the overall memory in patients with AD has improved. This paper reviews the various mechanisms of actions of curcumin in AD and pathology.


Keywords: Alternative approach to Alzheimer′s, beta amyloid plaques, curcumin, curcumin and dementia, epidemiology, turmeric


How to cite this article:
Mishra S, Palanivelu K. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2008;11:13-9

How to cite this URL:
Mishra S, Palanivelu K. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview. Ann Indian Acad Neurol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2021 Dec 7];11:13-9. Available from: https://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2008/11/1/13/40220



   Introduction Top


Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration together with declining activities of daily living and behavioral changes. It is the most common type of pre-senile and senile dementia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 5% of men and 6% of woman of above the age of 60 years are affected with Alzheimer's type dementia worldwide. [1] In India, the total prevalence of dementia per 1000 people is 33.6%, of which AD constitutes approximately 54% and vascular dementia constitutes approximately 39%. AD affects approximately 4.5 million people in the United States or approximately 10% of the population over the age of 65, and this number is projected to reach four times by 2050. The frequency increases to 50% by the age of 80 years. Every year more than $100 billion is spent for health care in the U.S. to treat AD in primary care settings alone.

Neuropathology of AD : The neuropathological process consists of neuronal loss and atrophy, principally in the temporoparietal and frontal cortex, with an inflammatory response to the deposition of amyloid plaques and an abnormal cluster of protein fragments and tangled bundles of fibres (neurofibillary tangles). Neurotic plaques are relatively insoluble dense cores of 5-10 nm thick amyloid fibrils with a pallor staining "halo" surrounded by dystrophic neuritis, reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. There is an increased presence of monocytes/macrophages in the cerebral vessel wall and reactive or activated microglial cells in the adjacent parenchyma. [2],[3] The main protein component of amyloid in AD is the 39-42 amino acid (beta) amyloid peptide (A-beta) [Figure - 1].

Curcumin

Curcumin (Curcuma longa - Haldi) is the source of the spice Turmeric [Figure - 2] and is used in curries and other spicy dishes from India, Asia and the Middle East. Similar to many other herbal remedies, people first used curcumin as a food and later discovered that it also had impressive medicinal qualities. It has been used extensively in Ayurveda (Indian system of Medicine) for centuries as a pain relieving, anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain and inflammation in the skin and muscles. It has also proven to have anti-cancer properties. [4],[5] Curcumin holds a high place in Ayurvedic medicine as a "cleanser of the body," and today,science is finding a growing list of diseased conditions that can be healed by the active ingredients of turmeric. [6]


   The Plant Top


Botanical name: Curcuma longa; Family: Zingiberaceae, the ginger family. Turmeric is a sterile plant and does not produce any seeds [Figure - 2]. The plant grows up to 3-5 ft tall and has dull yellow flowers. The underground rhizomes or roots of the plant are used for medicinal and food preparation. The rhizome is an underground stem that is thick and fleshy ringed with the bases of old leaves. Rhizomes are boiled and then dried and ground to make the distinctive bright yellow spice, turmeric.

Turmeric History: Probably originating from India, turmeric has been used in India for at least 2500 years. It is most common in southern Asia and particularly in India. Turmeric was probably cultivated at first as a dye and later on it was used as cosmetic and as an auspicious and aromatic food substance. It possesses antiseptic, anti-inflammatory detoxifying properties as well as carminative properties. Turmeric has a long history of medicinal use in South Asia and was widely used in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems. It is thought to be a hybrid selection and vegetative propagation of wild turmeric (Curcuma aromatica), which is native to India, Sri Lanka and the eastern Himalayas and some other closely related species.


   Curcumin and Alzheimer's Disease Top


Worldwide, there are over 1000 published animal and human studies, both in vivo and in vitro in which the effects of curcumin on various diseases have been examined. Studies include epidemiological, basic and clinical research on AD.


   Epidemiological Studies Top


Various studies and research [9],[10] results indicate a lower incidence and prevalence of AD in India. The prevalence of AD among adults aged 70-79 years in India is 4.4 times less than that of adults aged 70-79 years in the United States. [9] Researchers investigated the association between the curry consumption and cognitive level in 1010 Asians between 60 and 93 years of age. The study found that those who occasionally ate curry (less than once a month) and often (more than once a month) performed better on a standard test (MMSE) of cognitive function than those who ate curry never or rarely. [10]

Mechanism of action of curcumin on Alzheimer's disease: The process through which AD degrades the nerve cells is believed to involve certain properties: inflammation, oxidative damage and most notably, the formation of beta-amyloid plaques, metal toxicity [Figure - 3]. There have been several studies on effects of curcumin on AD. Outlined below are some of the studies and their conclusions.


   Effects of Curcumin on Macrophages Top


A study conducted at UCLA found that curcumin may help the macrophages to clear the amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Macrophages play an important role in the immune system. They help the body to fight against foreign proteins and then effectively clear them. Curcumin was treated with macrophages in blood taken from nine volunteers: six AD patients and three healthy controls. Beta amyloid was then introduced. The AD patients, whose macrophages were treated with curcumin, when compared with patients whose macrophages were not treated with curcumin, showed an improved uptake and ingestion of the plaques. Thus, curcumin may support the immune system to clear the amyloid protein. [11]

Curcumin on glial cells:Recent histological studies reveal the presence of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes around A-beta plaques in brains from patients with AD. The chronic activation of microglia secretes cytokines and some reactive substances that exacerbate A-beta pathology. So neuroglia is an important part in the pathogenesis of AD. Curcumin has a lipophilic property and can pass through all cell membranes and thus exerts its intracellular effects. Curcumin has anti-proliferative actions on microglia. A minimal dose of curcumin affects neuroglial proliferation and differentiation. Its inhibition of microglial proliferation and differentiation were studied and researched by the University of Southern California Los Angeles (UCLA). Researchers [12] using doses of 4, 5, 10, 15, 20 microM concentration of curcumin in C-6 rat glioma 2B-clone cells, a mixed colony of both neuroglial cells in a six- day trial, showed that curcumin dose dependently stops the proliferation of neuroglial cells, by differentiate into a mature cell or undergo apoptosis. It inhibits neuroglial cells proliferation dose dependently (i.e.) higher the concentration, the greater the inhibition. It has shown to decrease the glutamine synthetase (GS) assay, a marker enzyme for astrocytes. In the same study, curcumin was shown to increase CNP (2'3'- cyclic Nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase), a marker enzyme for oligodendrocytes. The overall effect of curcumin on neuroglial cells involves decreased astrocytes proliferation, improved myelogenesis and increased activity and differentiation of oligodendrocytes.


   Curcumin as an Anti Inflammatory in Alzheimer's Top


One of the important pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease is the chronic inflammation of nerve cells. Several studies have demonstrated the associated inflammatory changes such as microgliosis, astrocytosis and the presence of pro-inflammatory substances that accompany the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Patients with the prolonged use of certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs such as ibuprofen have been shown to have a reduced risk of developing the symptoms of AD; however, the chronic use of NSAID can cause a toxic effect on the kidneys, liver and GI track. Curcumin has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Through its various anti-inflammatory effects, it may have a role in the cure of AD. Curcumin inhibits Aβ-induced expression of Egr-1 protein and Egr-1 DNA-binding activity in THP-1 monocytic cells. Studies have shown the role of Egr-1 in amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene expression in monocytes. By inhibition of Egr-1 DNA-binding activity by curcumin, it reduces the inflammation. The chemotaxis of monocytes, which can occur in response to chemokines from activated microglia and astrocytes in the brain, can be decreased by curcumin. [13],[14]

Curcumin is found to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX-2), phospholipases, transcription factor and enzymes involved in metabolizing the membrane phospholipids into prostaglandins. The reduction of the release of ROS by stimulated neutrophils, inhibition of AP-1 and NF-Kappa B inhibit the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-alpha and IL (interleukin)-1 beta. [15],[16] Overall, curcumin decreases the main chemical for inflammation and the transcription of inflammatory cytokines. Curcumin inhibits intracellular IL-12 p40/p70 and IL-12 p70 expression. The exposure to curcumin also impaired the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-). These studies indicate a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by curcumin and it may differ according to the nature of the target cells.


   Curcumin as an Anti-oxidant Top


Curcumin inhibits the activity of AP-1, a transcription factor involved in expression of amyloid, which is linked to AD. Curcuminoids are proven to have strong antioxidant action demonstrated by the inhibition of the formation and propagation of free radicals. It decreases the low-density lipoprotein oxidation and the free radicals that cause the deterioration of neurons, not only in AD but also in other neuron degenerative disorders such as Huntington's and Parkinson's disease. [16] In one study, curcuma oil (500 mg Kg(-1) i.p.) was given 15 min before 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24 h reflow in rats. This significantly diminished the infarct volume, improved neurological deficit and counteracted oxidative stress. [17]

A study conducted at Nanjing Medical University (China) showed that a single injection of curcumin (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.v.) after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats significantly diminished the infarct volume, improved neurological deficit, decreased mortality and reduced the water content in the brain. [18]

Curcumin has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; according to the scientists, these properties believe help ease Alzheimer's symptoms caused by oxidation and inflammation. [19] A study conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru University (India) demonstrated that the administration of curcumin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin accumulation that is normally increased with aging. [20] It also increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, sodium-potassium ATPase that normally decreased with aging. In another study, curcumin has been shown to protect the cells from betaA (1-42) insult through antioxidant pathway. [21] Curcumin protects brain mitochondria against various oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with curcumin protects brain mitochondria against peroxynitrite (a product of the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide) a potent and versatile oxidant that can attack a wide range of cells in vitro by direct detoxification and in vivo by the elevation of total cellular glutathione levels. [22]


   Curcumin on Haemoxygenase Pathway Top


Natural antioxidant curcumin has been identified as a potent inducer of hemoxygenase, a protein that provides efficient cytoprotection against various forms of oxidative stress. By promoting the inactivation of Nrf2-keap1 complex and increased binding to no-1ARE, curcumin induces hemoxygenase activity. The incubation of astrocytes with curcumin at a concentration that promoted hemoxygenase activity resulted in an early increase in reduced glutathione, followed by a significant elevation in oxidized glutathione content. [23],[24],[25] Glutathione is an important water-phase antioxidant and essential cofactor for antioxidant enzymes protecting the mitochondria against endogenous oxygen radicals. Its level reflects the free radical scavenging capacity of the body. GSH depletion leads to tissue damage due to lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage.


   Beta-Amyloid Plaques Top


The most prominent characteristic feature in AD is the presence of beta-amyloid plaques. These plaques are basically an accumulation of small fibers called beta amyloid fibrils. Because the deposition of beta-amyloid protein is a consistent pathological hallmark of brains affected by AD, the inhibition of A-beta generation, prevention of A-beta fibril formation, destabilization of pre-formed A-beta would be an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. The levels of beta-amyloid in AD mice that were given low doses of curcumin were decreased by around 40% in comparison to those that were not treated with curcumin. In addition, low doses of curcumin also caused a 43% decrease in the so-called "plaque burden" that these beta-amyloid have on the brains of AD mice. Surprisingly low doses of curcumin given over longer period were actually more effective than high doses in combating the neurodegenerative process of AD. [26] At higher concentration, curcumin binds to amyloid beta and blocks its self assembly. The key chemical features in amyloid beta are the presence of two aromatic end groups and any alterations in these groups has profound effect on its activity.

Because of the lipophilic nature of curcumin, it crosses the blood brain barrier and binds to plaques. Curcumin was a better A-beta 40 aggregation inhibitor and it destabilizes the A-beta polymer. In in vitro studies, curcumin inhibits aggregation as well as disaggregates to form fibrillar A-beta 40. A Japanese study showed that using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, curcumin destabilizes the fA-beta(1-40) and fA-beta(1-42) as well as their extension. [27] Curcumin-derived isoxazoles and pyrazoles bind to the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) and inhibit amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism. [28] Curcumin given to APPswe/PS1dE9 mice for 7 days crosses the blood-brain barrier as demonstrated by muliti-photon microscopy and reduces the existing senile plaques. [29] In another study, curcumin has been shown to increase the phagocytosis of amyloid-beta, effectively clearing them from the brains of patients with AD. [30]


   Metal Chelation Top


Studies showed that metals can induce A-beta aggregation and toxicity and are concentrated on Alzheimer's brain. Chelators' desferroxamine and cliquinol have exhibited anti-Alzheimer's effects. A study at Capital University Beijing demonstrated the toxicity of copper on neurons. A greater amount of H 2 O 2 was released when copper (2)-A(beta)-40 complexes were added to the xanthene oxidase system. Copper was bound to A(beta)1-40 and was observed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, copper chelators could cause a structural transition of A(beta). There was an increase on beta sheet as well as alpha-helix when copper was introduced. [31] Another study reveals that copper and zinc bind A-beta inducing aggregation and give rise to reactive oxygen species. There was a conformational change from beta sheet to alpha helix followed by peptide oligomerization and membrane penetration, when copper (or) zinc is added to A-beta in a negatively charged lipid environment. [32] Brain iron deregulation and its association with amyloid precursor protein plaque formation are implicated in the pathology of AD. [33]

Curcumin, by interaction with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, prevents neurotoxicity caused by these metals. The intraperitoneal injection of lead acetate in rats in the presence of curcumin was studied microscopically. The results show lead-induced damage to neurons was significantly reduced in rats injected with curcumin. [34] A study at Chinese University of Hong Kong showed that by using spectrophotometry, the curcumin effectively binds to copper, zinc and iron. In addition, curcumin binds more effectively with redox-active metals such as iron and copper than the redox-inactive zinc. It is suggested that curcumin suppresses inflammatory damage by preventing metal induction of NF-kappa. [35],[36]


   Cholesterol Lowering Effect Top


High-fat diets and increased blood cholesterol are linked to increased amyloid plaques by the intracellular accumulation of cholestryl esters. [37] Researchers believe that by inhibiting cholesterol formation and decreasing serum peroxides, curcumin might exert beneficial effects on AD. [38]

Safety

Oral bioavailability:
Curcumin has poor bioavailability. Because curcumin readily conjugated in the intestine and liver to form curcumin glucuronides. [39] In a clinical trial conducted in Taiwan, serum curcumin concentrations peaked one to two hours after an oral dose. Peak serum concentrations were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.8 micromoles/L at doses of 4, 6 and 8 g/day respectively. [40] It is also measured in urine at a dose of 3.6 g/day. Absorption is poor following ingestion in mice and rats. 38% to 75% of an ingested dose of curcumin is excreted in the feces. Absorption appears to be better with food. Curcumin crosses the blood brain barrier and is detected in CSF.

Side Effect

No apparent side effects have been reported thus far. GI upset, chest tightness, skin rashes, swollen skin are said to occur with high dose. A few cases of allergic contact dermatitis from curcumin have been reported. [41]

The chronic use of curcumin can cause liver toxicity. For this reason, turmeric products should probably be avoided by individuals with liver disease, heavy drinkers and those who take prescription medications that are metabolized by liver. Curcumin was found to be pharmacologically safe in human clinical trials with doses up to 10 g/day. A phase 1 human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for three months found no toxicity from curcumin. [42]

Interaction

Curcumin is said to interact with certain drugs such as blood thinning agents, NSAIDs, reserpin. Co-supplementation with 20 mg of piperine (extracted from black pepper) significantly increase the bioavailablity of curcumin by 2000%. [43]

Contraindication

Curcumin is not recommended for persons with biliary tract obstruction because it stimulates bile secretion. It is also not recommended for people with gallstones, obstructive jaundice and acute biliary colic. Curcumin supplementation of 20-40 mg have been reported to increase gallbladder contractions in healthy people. [44],[45]


   Human Top


Epidemiological studies have shown that prevalence of AD is 4.4 lower amongst Indian Asians as compared to people of western origin. [9] Dementia incidence in western countries (P < 0.21) and East Asian countries were lower than that of Europe (P < 0.0004). [49]

Clinical -Vivo: Blood from six patients with AD and three healthy controls was taken and the macrophage cells were isolated. After treatment of macrophages with curcuminoids, Aβ uptake by macrophages of three of the six AD patients was found to have significantly increased ( P < 0.001 to 0.081). [11]

Five animal and two human studies showed statistically significant P values.


   Conclusion Top


Based on the main findings detailed above, curcumin will lead to a promising treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The clinically studied chemical properties of curcumin and its various effects on AD shows the possibility to do further research and develop better drugs based on curcumin for treating AD. The recent review paper of John Ringman also supports some of the abovementioned properties of curcumin in AD; [50] however, large-scale human studies are required to identify the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of curcumin.

Several unanswered questions remain: What is the one main chemical property of curcumin that can be exploited in treating AD? What is the role of curcumin in other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and other dementias? How does curcumin interact with neuronal plaques? Is it effective only as a food additive? Would it be effective when used alone or with other anti inflammatory drugs?

 
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    Figures

  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2]


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RSC Adv.. 2016; 6(4): 2835
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83 Curcumin, an Active Component of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), and Its Effects on Health
BetÜl Kocaadam,NevIn Sanlier
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015; : 00
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84 Effect of aflatoxin B1 on the seminiferous tubules and the possible protective role of curcumin in adult albino rats (Light and electron microscopic study)
Eman A. El-Kordy,Maha M. Abo Gazia
The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2015; 38(3): 614
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85 Evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant and anticancer potential of two main representants of Zingiberaceae family against B164A5 murine melanoma cells
Corina Danciu,Lavinia Vlaia,Florinela Fetea,Monica Hancianu,Dorina E Coricovac,Sorina A Ciurlea,Codruta M Soica,Iosif Marincu,Vicentiu Vlaia,Cristina A Dehelean,Cristina Trandafirescu
Biological Research. 2015; 48(1): 1
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86 Pre-administration of turmeric prevents methotrexate-induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress
Adel Rezaei Moghadam,Soheil Tutunchi,Ali Namvaran-Abbas-Abad,Mina Yazdi,Fatemeh Bonyadi,Daryoush Mohajeri,Mohammad Mazani,Hassan Marzban,Marek J. Los,Saeid Ghavami
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015; 15(1)
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87 Precautionary Ellagic Acid Treatment Ameliorates Chronically Administered Scopolamine Induced Alzheimeræs Type Memory and Cognitive Dysfunctions in Rats
Ramandeep Kaur,Sidharth Mehan,Deepa Khanna,Sanjeev Kalra,Shaba Parveen
Pharmacologia. 2015; 6(5): 192
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88 Curcumin and Apigenin - novel and promising therapeutics against chronic neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease
Madhuri Venigalla,Erika Gyengesi,Gerald Münch
Neural Regeneration Research. 2015; 10(8): 1181
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89 Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites
Ambar Choudhury,Suganya Raja,Sanjata Mahapatra,Kalyanam Nagabhushanam,Muhammed Majeed
Antioxidants. 2015; 4(4): 750
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90 Neuropsychopharmacotherapeutic efficacy of curcumin in experimental paradigm of autism spectrum disorders
Ranjana Bhandari,Anurag Kuhad
Life Sciences. 2015; 141: 156
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Novel curcumin-based pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine anti-oxidant inhibitors for a-amylase and a-glucosidase: Implications for their pleiotropic effects against diabetes complications
Afsoon Yousefi,Reza Yousefi,Farhad Panahi,Samira Sarikhani,Aminreza Zolghadr,Aminollah Bahaoddini,Ali Khalafi-Nezhad
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2015;
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92 Reducing Aß load and tau phosphorylation: Emerging perspective for treating Alzheimeræs disease
Jaspreet Kalra,Aamir Khan
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015; 764: 571
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93 Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response and cognitive deficits in experimental model of chronic epilepsy
Harpreet Kaur,Ishan Patro,Kulbhushan Tikoo,Rajat Sandhir
Neurochemistry International. 2015; 89: 40
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94 Gene expression profiling reveals biological pathways responsible for phenotypic heterogeneity between UK and Sri Lankan oral squamous cell carcinomas
Anas A. Saeed,Andrew H. Sims,Stephen S. Prime,Ian Paterson,Paul G. Murray,Victor R. Lopes
Oral Oncology. 2015;
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95 The Chemistry of Neurodegeneration: Kinetic Data and Their Implications
Matic Pavlin,Matej Repic,Robert Vianello,Janez Mavri
Molecular Neurobiology. 2015;
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96 Neuroprotective activities of curcumin and quercetin with potential relevance to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxaliplatin
Mohammad Waseem,Suhel Parvez
Protoplasma. 2015;
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97 Investigating the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes on the structure, function and oxidative stability of the peroxidase enzyme and their anticancer and antibacterial activities
Parisa Jahangoshaei,Leila Hassani,Fakhrossadat Mohammadi,Akram Hamidi,Khosro Mohammadi
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 2015; 20(7): 1135
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98 Epigenetic impact of curcumin on stroke prevention
Anuradha Kalani,Pradip K. Kamat,Komal Kalani,Neetu Tyagi
Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;
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99 Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats
Pranay Srivastava,Rajesh S. Yadav,Lalit P. Chadravanshi,Rajendra K. Shukla,Yogesh K. Dhuriya,Chauhan LKS,Hari N. Dwivedi,Aditiya B. Pant,Vinay K. Khanna
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2014;
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100 Synthesis and in vitro localization study of curcumin-loaded SPIONs in a micro capillary for simulating a targeted drug delivery system
Mohammed Anwar,Mohammed Asfer,Ayodhya P. Prajapati,Sharmistha Mohapatra,Sohail Akhter,Asgar Ali,Farhan J. Ahmad
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2014; 468(1-2): 158
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101 Mitochondria-targeting particles
Amaraporn Wongrakpanich,Sean M Geary,Mei-ling A Joiner,Mark E Anderson,Aliasger K Salem
Nanomedicine. 2014; 9(16): 2531
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102 Estimation of curcumin intake in Korea based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012)
Youngjoo Kwon
Nutrition Research and Practice. 2014; 8(5): 589
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103 Prenatal Curcumin Administration Reverses Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects and Decreases iNOS and COX-2 Expressions in Ischemic Rat Pups
Maria Valéria Leimig Telles,Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre,Lucas Parente Alencar,Keicy Parente de Siqueira,Ada Maria Farias Sousa Borges,Márnya Wellysa Leite Tavares,Isabelle Bernardo Alves,Lara Soares Duarte,Natália Kelly Rodrigues de Lacerda,Glaura Fernandes Teixeira de Alcântara,Débora Amado Scerni,Kelly Rose Tavares Neves,Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
International Journal of Brain Science. 2014; 2014: 1
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104 Evaluation of Traditional Medicines for Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Drosophila Models
Soojin Lee,Se Min Bang,Joon Woo Lee,Kyoung Sang Cho
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014; 2014: 1
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105 Hydrophobic hydration driven self-assembly of curcumin in water: Similarities to nucleation and growth under large metastability, and an analysis of water dynamics at heterogeneous surfaces
Milan Kumar Hazra,Susmita Roy,Biman Bagchi
The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2014; 141(18): 18C501
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106 Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles Potently Induce Adult Neurogenesis and Reverse Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease ModelviaCanonical Wnt/ß-Catenin Pathway
Shashi Kant Tiwari,Swati Agarwal,Brashket Seth,Anuradha Yadav,Saumya Nair,Priyanka Bhatnagar,Madhumita Karmakar,Manisha Kumari,Lalit Kumar Singh Chauhan,Devendra Kumar Patel,Vikas Srivastava,Dhirendra Singh,Shailendra Kumar Gupta,Anurag Tripathi,Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi,Kailash Chand Gupta
ACS Nano. 2014; 8(1): 76
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107 Biochemical Stabilization of Glucagon at Alkaline pH
Nicholas Caputo,Melanie A. Jackson,Jessica R. Castle,Joseph El Youssef,Parkash A. Bakhtiani,Colin P. Bergstrom,Julie M. Carroll,Matthew E. Breen,Gerald L. Leonard,Larry L. David,Charles T. Roberts,W. Kenneth Ward
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2014; 16(11): 747
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108 In vitroacetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant properties ofAegle marmelosleaf extract: implications for the treatment of Alzheimeræs disease
Md. Asaduzzaman,Md. Josim Uddin,M.A. Kader,A.H.M.K. Alam,Aziz Abdur Rahman,Mamunur Rashid,Kiyoko Kato,Toshihisa Tanaka,Masatoshi Takeda,Golam Sadik
Psychogeriatrics. 2014; 14(1): 1
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109 Mechanistic Insights of Curcumin Interactions with the Core-Recognition Motif of ß-Amyloid Peptide
Priyadharshini Kumaraswamy,Swaminathan Sethuraman,Uma Maheswari Krishnan
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013; 61(13): 3278
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110 Mitochondrial dysfunction mediated cisplatin induced toxicity: Modulatory role of curcumin
Mohammad Waseem,Suhel Parvez
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 53: 334
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of phlorotannins isolated from the brown alga, Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss
Rengasamy R.R. Kannan,Mutalib A. Aderogba,Ashwell R. Ndhlala,Wendy A. Stirk,Johannes Van Staden
Food Research International. 2013; 54(1): 1250
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112 Amelioration of ß-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal axon degeneration by curcumin is associated with suppression of CRMP-2 hyperphosphorylation
Yunliang Wang,Honglei Yin,Jinfeng Li,Yuzhen Zhang,Bing Han,Zhilei Zeng,Nana Qiao,Xiaomei Cui,Jiyu Lou,Jing Li
Neuroscience Letters. 2013; 557: 112
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113 Protective effect of curcumin against chronic alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation in the adult rat brain
V. Tiwari,K. Chopra
Neuroscience. 2013; 244: 147
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114 Marine-derived bioactive materials for neuroprotection
Ratih Pangestuti,Se-Kwon Kim
Food Science and Biotechnology. 2013; 22(5): 1
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115 Curcumin as inhibitor of mammalian Cathepsin B, Cathepsin H, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase: a correlation with pharmacological activities
Indu Ravish,Neera Raghav
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2013;
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116 Chemical constituents and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities from leaves of Acanthopanax henryi: potential complementary source against Alzheimer’s disease
Xiao Dan Zhang,Xiang Qian Liu,Yang Hee Kim,Wan Kyunn Whang
Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2013;
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117 Biological activity, design, synthesis and structure activity relationship of some novel derivatives of curcumin containing sulfonamides
Jaggi Lal,Sushil K. Gupta,D. Thavaselvam,Dau D. Agarwal
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2013; 64: 579
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118 Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice
N. Rajasekar,Subhash Dwivedi,Santosh kumar Tota,Pradeep Kumar Kamat,Kashif Hanif,Chandishwar Nath,Rakesh Shukla
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2013; 715(1-3): 381
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119 Comparative docking and ADMET study of some curcumin derivatives and herbal congeners targeting β-amyloid
Dev Bukhsh Singh, Manish Kumar Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Kesharwani, Krishna Misra
Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics. 2013;
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120 Fabrication and characterization of curcumin-releasing silk fibroin scaffold
Naresh Kasoju,Utpal Bora
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2012; 100B(7): 1854
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121 Preclinical studies of potential amyloid binding PET/SPECT ligands in Alzheimeræs disease
Marie M. Svedberg,Obaidur Rahman,Håkan Hall
Nuclear Medicine and Biology. 2012; 39(4): 484
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122 Inhibitory effect of curcumin on the Al(III)-induced Aß42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro
Teng Jiang,Xiu-Ling Zhi,Yue-Hong Zhang,Luan-Feng Pan,Ping Zhou
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. 2012; 1822(8): 1207
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123 Bioinorganic Chemistry of Alzheimer’s Disease
Kasper P. Kepp
Chemical Reviews. 2012; 112(10): 5193
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124 Influence of curcumin on the Al(iii)-induced conformation transition of silk fibroin and resulting potential therapy for neurodegenerative diseases
Teng Jiang,Guang-Rong Zhou,Yue-Hong Zhang,Ping-Chuan Sun,Qi-Ming Du,Ping Zhou
RSC Advances. 2012; 2(24): 9106
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125 Voltammetric determination of curcumin in spices
G. K. Ziyatdinova,A. M. Nizamova,H. C. Budnikov
Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2012; 67(6): 591
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126 Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinsonæs Disease in Albino Wistar Rats
Shyam Sunder Agrawal,Sumeet Gullaiya,Vishal Dubey,Varun Singh,Ashok Kumar,Ashish Nagar,Poonam Tiwari
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology. 2012; 2012: 1
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127 Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases: a perspective
Altaf S Darvesh,Richard T Carroll,Anupam Bishayee,Nicholas A Novotny,Werner J Geldenhuys,Cornelis J Van der Schyf
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 2012; 21(8): 1123
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128 Genetics of Dementia
Claudia Padilla,Richard S. Isaacson
CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. 2011; 17: 326
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129 Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae
Ratih Pangestuti,Se-Kwon Kim
Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(12): 803
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130 Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing
David A. Camfield, Lauren Owen, Andrew B. Scholey, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough
British Journal Of Nutrition. 2011; : 1
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131 Interaction of curcumin with Al(III) and its complex structures based on experiments and theoretical calculations
Teng Jiang, Long Wang, Sui Zhang, Ping-Chuan Sun, Chuan-Fan Ding, Yan-Qiu Chu, Ping Zhou
Journal of Molecular Structure. 2011;
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132 Stress Proteins and Glial Cell Functions During Chronic Aluminium Exposures: Protective Role of Curcumin
Pooja Khanna Sood, Uma Nahar, Bimla Nehru
Neurochemical Research. 2011;
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133 Structure-based drug discovery of ApoE4 inhibitors from the plant compounds
Kh. Dhanachandra Singh, M. Karthikeyan, P. Kirubakaran, V. Sathya, S. Nagamani
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2011;
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134 Neuroprotective effects of marine algae
Pangestuti, R., Kim, S.-K.
Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(5): 803-818
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135 Genetics of dementia
Padilla, C., Isaacson, R.S.
CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology. 2011; 17(2): 326-342
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136 Curcumin: A promising antiamyloidogenic agent
Saljoughian, M.
U.S. Pharmacist. 2011; 36(8): 27-32
[Pubmed]
137 Neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein: Oligomerization, channel formation and calcium dyshomeostasis
Kawahara, M.
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2010; 16(25): 2779-2789
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138 Alzheimeræs disease: The pros and cons of pharmaceutical, nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies, with a discussion of treatment strategies from the perspective of patients and practitioners
Wollen, K.A.
Alternative Medicine Review. 2010; 15(3): 223-244
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139 Current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease
Osborn, G.G., Saunders, A.V.
Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2010; 110(9): s16-s26
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140 Curcumin: Multiple molecular targets mediate multiple pharmacological actions - A review
Shehzad, A., Lee, Y.S.
Drugs of the Future. 2010; 35(2): 113-119
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141 Involvement of PPAR-gamma in curcumin-mediated beneficial effects in experimental dementia
Puneet Rinwa, Baljinder Kaur, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg s Archives of Pharmacology. 2010; 381(6): 529
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142 Differential outcome of schizophrenia: Does cultural explanation suffice?
Gangadhar, B.N., Thirthalli, J.
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2009; 2(2): 53-54
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143 Optimized turmeric extracts have potent anti-amyloidogenic effects
Douglas Shytle, R., Bickford, P.C., Rezai-Zadeh, K., Hou, L., Zeng, J., Tan, J., Sanberg, P.R., Alberte, R.S.
Current Alzheimer Research. 2009; 6(6): 564-571
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144 Effect of curcumin on amyloidogenic property of molten globule-like intermediate state of 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate reductase A
Sarkar, N., Narain Singh, A., Dubey, V.K.
Biological Chemistry. 2009; 390(10): 1057-1061
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145 Differential outcome of schizophrenia: Does cultural explanation suffice?
Bangalore N. Gangadhar,Jagadisha Thirthalli
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2009; 2(2): 53
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146 Nanostructured Peptide Fibrils Formed at the Organic-Aqueous Interface and Their Use as Templates To Prepare Inorganic Nanostructures
Kanishka Biswas, C. N. R. Rao
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2009; 1(4): 811
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    Abstract
    Introduction
    Curcumin and Alz...
    Epidemiological ...
    Effects of Curcu...
    Curcumin as an A...
    Curcumin as an A...
    Curcumin on Haem...
    Beta-Amyloid Plaques
    Metal Chelation
    Cholesterol Lowe...
    Human
    Conclusion
    The Plant
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

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