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Figure 2: a) Bipolar derivation shows right temporal spikes with phase reversal at T2 (anterior temporal electrode) indicating the focus at T2. Common average reference derivation and (b) contralateral ear reference at A1 (c) confirms the maximal amplitude at T2. However, when ipsilateral ear lobe reference A2 is used, all channels show signals with a positive polarity indicating that A2 is ‘active’ and therefore, not a good choice for reference (d).

Figure 2: a) Bipolar derivation shows right temporal spikes with phase reversal at T2 (anterior temporal electrode) indicating the focus at T2. Common average reference derivation and (b) contralateral ear reference at A1 (c) confirms the maximal amplitude at T2. However, when ipsilateral ear lobe reference A2 is used, all channels show signals with a positive polarity indicating that A2 is ‘active’ and therefore, not a good choice for reference (d).